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Nationalism: Italian and German Unification

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1 Nationalism: Italian and German Unification
Emergence of realpolitik: Failure of ’48 for liberals and Romantics demonstrated that strong idealism not enough to accomplish revolutionary goals After 1850 “age of realism” replaced Romanticism as dominant philosophy A political representation of realism is the notion of realpolitik: accomplishing one’s political goals via practical means (as opposed to idealism driving political decisions). Nationalist goals were achievesd step by step. Who does this sound like from the past? Yes, him. Ital. Unificcation, Germ. Unification, Hungarian autonomy

2 Italian Unification Story of three men
Giuseppe Mazzini—publicist “The Heart” Camillo Cavour—stateman “The Head” Giuseppe Garibaldi—soldier “The Sword” Until 1850 Italy was dominated by outsiders Austrian Empire and Pope led opposition Many different visions of a united Italy Mazzini: centralized dem-rep based on univ. male suffr. and will of the people Gioberti: Cath priest.—federation of existing states under presidency of a progressive pope Sardinia-Piedmont (autocratic kingdom) ala Germans and Prussia Many were apathetic to idea



5 Nationalism Movement spread by a secret society—Carbonari(coal-burners) Influenced by French Revolution Led revolts in 1820 and 1831 Giuseppe Mazzini—prophet of Italian Nationalism Formed new group called Young Italy Campaigns for national Italian dialect

6 Unification comes by military and diplomatic means
Primarily under the leadership of the one state in Italy under Italian control, the Kingdom of Sardinia/Piedmont

7 Count Camillo Cavour Prime Minister of Kingdom of Sardinia under King Vic E. Build Sardinia/Piedmont into modern economically sound state Clear objectives for Sardinia- Politics of reality Northern Italy under Sardinia’s control Not interested in Southern Italy Too different-poor and agrarian Establish kingdom as a serious European power Fights in Crimean war Negotiates French support in war with Austria

8 Creation of a Unified Northern Italy
Prompted by Piedmont’s victory over Austria, several Italian revolt. Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna revolt and vote to join Piedmont. By 1869, Italy consists of three region, a northern Italian Kingdom, the Papal States and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies


10 Giuseppe Garibaldi Leader of a guerilla movement
Expedition of the Thousand (Red Shirts) Venture south into Sicily to bring about revolution Quickly overthrow the corrupt government of the Two Sicilies Cavour now invades the south and “takes” (or is it “unites”?) the prize from Garibaldi.

11 Unification By 1861, all of Italy except Rome and Venetia are united.
Leadership under King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia Venetia will be added in 1866 Rome seized in 1870.


13 Problems after Unification
Italy—poor w/ large illiterate population Division between church and state Economic divisions between the North and South Localism too strong in many areas Development of local strongmen Little knowledge of and participation in gov’t

14 Solutions to problems? Industry and trade were fostered by govt—transformismo Improved agricultural methods developed Gov’t encouraged emigration to US—ease over-popn due to high birthrate High taxes pd to support growing Army and Navy

15 German Unification The last big unification piece of the 19th century
Most important in Europe from 1848 to 1914 Transformed the economic, military and diplomatic balance of power The question of German unification would center around the two dominate German speaking countries of the period—Prussia and Austria After 1848, Prussia was the increasing dominant power.

16 Otto von Bismarck Comes to dominate Prussian, then German politics from Prussian Chancellor from 1862 One of most remarkable leaders of 19th century Came from Junker class (noble landlord) in East Prussia Practiced realpolitik, little faith in liberalism or nationalism. Practical, pragmatic. By any means necessary Conservative, but willing to work with middle class liberals Iron and Blood speech(1862)—willing to use force to unify Germany, strengthen Prussia


18 Early Steps to Unification
Existing Pieces Zollverein—customs union Maintained economic links Excluded Austria Frankfurt Assembly—Assembly of all German states to exchange ideas Bismarck needed to establish dominance in the Prussian government Weaken power of liberals Issue of taxation for expanded army

19 Wars of Unification War with Denmark(1864) War with Austria(1866)
Dispute over Schleswig-Holstein Supported by Austria Joint occupation War with Austria(1866) Seven Weeks’ War (Austro-Prussian War) Quickly defeated Austria and German allies Austria forced to give up role within Germany


21 North German Confederation
Formation of the North German Confederation Prussia annexes Hanover, Hesse, Nassau and Frankfurt Sets up basis of political structures Appearance of liberalism but in reality a military monarchy 2 House Legislature-- Bundesrat and Reichstag Little real power Liberalism defeated by dream of unification

22 Franco-Prussian War In many ways can be viewed as the first shots of World War I. Napoleon III realizes after Prussian victories in Denmark and Austria that he must prevent German unification. Bismarck’s goal was to complete unification by bringing into union the Catholic South German states.

23 Ems Telegram Bismarck finds an diplomatic issue as excuse for war
Question of member of German Royal Family assuming Spanish throne France opposes for strategic purposes (encirclement) Pressures Wilhelm I to refuse Pushes issue too far Bismarck edits telegram from Kaiser –makes it appear as a German insult to France Popular press forces France to declare war on Prussia—matter of honor

24 War France is ill-prepared for conflict War was over in 6 months
Technologically backward compared to Prussia War was over in 6 months The states of Southern Germany joined the Northern German Confederation against France. Prussians strike a devastating defeat on the French at Sedan Captured 100,000 French troops Take Napoleon III prisoner

25 Peace Terms France forced to pay a humiliating price for defeat
5 billion franc reparations Alsace and Lorraine turned over to Germany Important industrial region of France Northern France occupied for three years Plants the seeds for future year French will vow revenge for embarrassment

26 Creation of a German Empire
Bismarck and William I proclaim a German Empire at Versailles. Another insult to France German Princes remained heads of their respective states within the Empire. Culmination of Bismarck’s activities Consolidated German Empire: uniform currency and legal code Suppress Catholics in South: Kulturkampf:restrict church , esp. in ed and clergy


28 Impact Fact and manner of German unification produced long term effects on Europe New German Empire far stronger than Prussia alone Militarily, economically it is strongest nation in Europe Blow to European liberalism New state is a conservative monarchy Major impact on Balance of Power France and Austria weakened Simmering French hatred Germany will now become a defender of the status quo

29 Other Actions of Bismarck
Tried to suppress the socialists: Socialists appealed to urban workers who resented low pay and bad working conditions. Bismarck tried to suppress them forcibly 1878 w/ anti-socialist laws, but failed. By the 1880’s, Bismarck began to undermine them by supporting social legislation to gain the support of the workers. These programs incl. unemployment insurance & workers’ comp., and soc. Sec. payments for retired Germans.

30 Germany 1888: William II (defender of divine right) became king and Bismarck remained the chancellor, until he was dismissed by William. William II did the following: Built up a strong army & navy Encouraged industry & commerce Encouraged imperialism and annexation

31 Austria-Hungary Emperor Francis-Joseph tried to solve problems, they were too great for one ruler Problems faced by the empire included: The great number of national minorities which were living in the empire Over-extension of the empire into areas, such as Italy Failure to compete with the growing power of Prussia. Absolutist, dynastic and agrarian liberal, nationalistic and industrial

32 Dual Monarchy Revolts occurred in the Hungarian part of the empire between 1861 & 1867. Defeat by Prussia and losses in Italy cause Austria to decl. in influence and power 1867: Ausgleich: Austria and Hungary under one monarch--Dual Monarchy (Austro-Hungarian empire) Hungary given control of its own affairs and control over its own minorities, make its own laws the Hungarians (Magyars) dominant over other nationalities in regiondoes not give autonomy to other minorities\ Hungarians recog’d the emperor and accepted common policies for finances & foreign policy. Austria faced many revolts between 1860 & 1914


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