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1850-1914: an “Age of Nationalism” Unification of Italy and Germany became major areas of focus Debates between conservatives, liberals, and socialists.

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Presentation on theme: "1850-1914: an “Age of Nationalism” Unification of Italy and Germany became major areas of focus Debates between conservatives, liberals, and socialists."— Presentation transcript:

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2 : an “Age of Nationalism” Unification of Italy and Germany became major areas of focus Debates between conservatives, liberals, and socialists still continued Nationalism became the major theme of the late-1800’s Intense pride and devotion to one’s country or ones culture Aftermath of the Revolutions of 1848

3 Causes: Conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire over territory in the Balkan Peninsula and Black Sea region Possibility of Russia becoming too powerful made other European countries nervous France and Great Britain aided the Ottoman Empire in the war Were hoping to keep Russian expansion in check Sardinia (Italian state) also joined against Russia Heavy casualties Florence Nightingale…nursing Russia was defeated Crimean War

4 Italy divided into city-states since the fall of Rome Italian peninsula was a battle-ground for competing states throughout much of the early modern period Lands controlled by outside powers such as Austria and France Attempts at unification in the early 1800’s were unsuccessful Guiseppe Mazzini: called for a centralized republic with universal suffrage Vincenzo Gioberti: called for Italy to unite under the Pope (he was a priest= POV) Eventually, Italian unification would be spearheaded by King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia and his advisor Camillo Benso di Cavour Unification of Italy

5 Risorgimento: “Resurgence”…Italian name for the unification of Italy Obstacles for unification: Various territories controlled by different states; Austrian control of Italian land was a major obstacle Cavour allied Sardinia with France hoping that France could help Sardinia push the Austrians out of Italy 1859: Sardinia and France went to war with Austria Following this war, rebellions spread throughout Northern Italy as neighboring regions decided to unite with Sardinia Unification of Italy

6 In Southern Italy, Guisseppe Garibaldi led a revolt in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, which was controlled by the French Garibaldi was a member of a nationalist group known as Young Italy His army of Red Shirts (numbering only about 1000) was able to defeat the French This made Cavour nervous; he feared that Garibaldi would attempt to unite Italy under his own rule Cavour approached Garibaldi and convinced him to work with Sardinia to unite the Italian Peninsula. Victor Emmanuel was declared the first king of Italy on March 17, 1861 Venice and Rome were added to Italy in 1866 and 1870 Unification of Italy

7 1861: Wilhelm I became king of Prussia 1862: Otto Von Bismarck appointed Chancellor/Prime Minister of Prussia Wilhelm and Bismarck had dreams of Prussia growing in power and dominating German lands. They used nationalism to achieve this goal. Realpolitik: the politics of reality. Making practical decisions by using facts to guide an action Weigh the costs and consequences before acting Ethics or moral obligations are less significant than the promotion of national interests Unification of Germany

8 Under Bismarck, Prussia grew in power “Blood and Iron” speech: a tribute to military power and industrialization Begins a series of wars to take over neighboring German states The Danish War: Prussia seizes control of Schleswig with plans of also taking over Holstein, an Austrian territory 1866: Seven Weeks War or Austro-Prussian War: Prussia defeats Austria Franco-Prussian War: France and Prussia go to war; France thought they were preventing a Hohenzollern from taking the throne of Spain. Bismarck encourages the rumor and stirs up trouble until France eventually starts the war France suffers a humiliating defeat January 18, 1871: the King of Prussia was declared the Emperor of Germany In the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles Unification of Germany

9 Germany and France became bitter enemies Germany gained control of Alsace-Lorraine (both were rich, industrial provinces) Germany will become and economic and military power Germany joins other nations in their quest to build an empire (imperialism…more on this in our next unit) Unification of Germany

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