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the belief that people should be mainly loyal to their nation Nationalists believe that a cultural unity should turn into a political reality FOCUS: German.

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Presentation on theme: "the belief that people should be mainly loyal to their nation Nationalists believe that a cultural unity should turn into a political reality FOCUS: German."— Presentation transcript:

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2 the belief that people should be mainly loyal to their nation Nationalists believe that a cultural unity should turn into a political reality FOCUS: German unification Mid-1800s Nationalism:

3 Unification of Germany Iron and Blood

4 Factors Hindering Unification Religion (North-Protestant/South-Catholic) 39 different German states Loyalty to individual princes rather than central government Opposition of France and Austria Economic differences (East- Agriculture/West-Industry)

5 Germany Towards Unification: 39 States in German Confederation

6 Otto von Bismarck Became Prussian chancellor (prime minister) 1862 under William I Junker - German noble landowner Protestant conservative military reforms manipulative & confident brilliant diplomat Realpolitik

7 King William I of Prussia

8 Realpolitik Practical or pragmatic politics any action is acceptable if it serves the states (nation-states) interest making decisions based on usefulness rather than moral considerations

9 3 Wars for unification

10 Danish War Danish King intends to annex Schleswig and Holstein Austria & Prussia combine to defeat Denmark easily stage set for conflict manipulated by Bismarck

11 1864

12 Austro-Prussian War Also called the Seven Weeks War (by the Prussians!) Prussians win easily Austria agrees to dissolve the German Confederation German states above the Main River join together in North German Confederation under Prussian King Austria contends with Hungarian revolt Austria becomes Austria-Hungary

13 1866-67

14 Franco-Prussian War Bismarck tricks the French into war Southern Catholic German states join the North German Confederation for protection French commander captured and surrenders to the Prussians Prussian victory helps build up German patriotism

15 Treaty of Frankfurt Treaty that ends Franco-Prussian War France pays Prussia lots of $$ Prussians will remain in France until paid France gives Alsace-Lorainne to Germany Rebels in Paris refuse to accept surrender Paris bombarded and taken after inhabitants resort to eating rats and zoo animals

16 Boundary of German Empire 1870-1871 Become part of Germany

17 Treaty of Frankfurt was very harsh towards French led to years of problems between France and Germany shown later in World War I and II

18 William Is coronation in Hall of Mirrors at Versailles

19 German Empire Centralization of Power Kulturkampf - Effort to reduce power of Catholic Church in Germany Foreign Policy...

20 Bismarcks foreign policy gain allies –Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria, Italy –Reinsurance Treaty: Germany and Russia Isolate France avoid war - Bismarck hosts 2 conferences to settle conflicts

21 Problems following Unification Alliance system Empire dominated by Prussia Suppression of Catholics Growth of Socialism Dismissal of Bismarck

22 Post-Bismarck Germany Kaiser Wilhelm II (1889-1918) Militarism build-up of navy and army forces Britain and France into alliance competes for colonies

23 Foreign Policy allows Russian alliance to lapse Russia and France make alliance which leads to Schlieffen Plan…..(we will mention this during WWI)

24 World War I These alliances help set the stage for


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