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FOCUS: German unification Mid-1800s

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Presentation on theme: "FOCUS: German unification Mid-1800s"— Presentation transcript:

1 FOCUS: German unification Mid-1800s
Nationalism: the belief that people should be mainly loyal to their nation Nationalists believe that a cultural unity should turn into a political reality FOCUS: German unification Mid-1800s

2 Unification of Germany
 Iron and Blood 

3 Factors Hindering Unification
Religion (North-Protestant/South-Catholic) 39 different German states Loyalty to individual princes rather than central government Opposition of France and Austria Economic differences (East-Agriculture/West-Industry)

4 Germany Towards Unification: 39 States in German Confederation

5 Otto von Bismarck Became Prussian chancellor (prime minister) 1862 under William I Junker - German noble landowner Protestant conservative military reforms manipulative & confident brilliant diplomat Realpolitik

6 King William I of Prussia

7 Realpolitik Practical or pragmatic politics
any action is acceptable if it serves the state’s (nation-state’s) interest making decisions based on usefulness rather than moral considerations

8 3 Wars for unification

9 Danish War Danish King intends to annex Schleswig and Holstein
Austria & Prussia combine to defeat Denmark easily stage set for conflict manipulated by Bismarck

10 1864

11 Austro-Prussian War Also called the Seven Weeks War (by the Prussians!) Prussians win easily Austria agrees to dissolve the German Confederation German states above the Main River join together in North German Confederation under Prussian King Austria contends with Hungarian revolt  Austria becomes Austria-Hungary


13 Franco-Prussian War Bismarck tricks the French into war
Southern Catholic German states join the North German Confederation for protection French commander captured and surrenders to the Prussians Prussian victory helps build up German patriotism

14 Treaty of Frankfurt Treaty that ends Franco-Prussian War
France pays Prussia lots of $$ Prussians will remain in France until paid France gives Alsace-Lorainne to Germany Rebels in Paris refuse to accept surrender Paris bombarded and taken after inhabitants resort to eating rats and zoo animals

15 Become part of Germany Boundary of German Empire

16 Treaty of Frankfurt was very harsh towards French
led to years of problems between France and Germany shown later in World War I and II

17 William I’s coronation in Hall of Mirrors at Versailles

18 German Empire Centralization of Power
Kulturkampf - Effort to reduce power of Catholic Church in Germany Foreign Policy...

19 Bismarck’s foreign policy
gain allies Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria, Italy Reinsurance Treaty: Germany and Russia Isolate France avoid war - Bismarck hosts 2 conferences to settle conflicts

20 Problems following Unification
Alliance system Empire dominated by Prussia Suppression of Catholics Growth of Socialism Dismissal of Bismarck

21 Post-Bismarck Germany
Kaiser Wilhelm II ( ) Militarism build-up of navy and army forces Britain and France into alliance competes for colonies

22 Foreign Policy allows Russian alliance to lapse Russia and France make alliance which leads to Schlieffen Plan…..(we will mention this during WWI)

23 These alliances help set the stage for World War I

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