2"The word 'Italy' is a geographical expression, a description which is useful shorthand, but has none of the political significance the efforts of the revolutionary ideologues try to put on it, and which is full of dangers for the very existence of the states which make up the peninsula." -Metternich
5Giuseppe Mazzini Idealistic patriot Wanted a centralized democratic republic centered around universal male suffrage and the will of the people.
6Vincenzo Gioberti Catholic priest Wanted a federation of the existing Italian states under the leadership of a progressive pope.
7Count Camillo Benso di Cavour Dominant figure in the Sardinian governmentWanted to unite Italy under the banner of Sardinia-Piedmont’s leadership.
8Which of these approaches won in the end? Why did the other approaches fail to gain widespread support?
9Cavour’s steps towards unity Consolidated Sardinia as a liberal, constitutional state.Made programs for construction of highways and railroads.Promoted civil liberties, opposed clerical privilege.Worked towards acquiring Lombardy and Venetia from Austria.
10How did Cavour go about trying to get Northern Italy from Austria?
11Revolt of Central Italy While fighting Austria in the North, Central Italian rebels who were pro-Sardinian revolted, overthrew their leaders, and called for union with Sardinia.Voted to join the Kingdom of Sardinia.Created a unified Northern Italy.
12Giuseppe Garibaldi Son of a poor sailor. Heir to the republican ideal of Mazzini.Led the Red Shirts against the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.Succeded, and nearly marched on the Papal States themselves
13Cavour takes control of the situation Sardinian forces occupied the Papal States, ensuring that Garibaldi would not attack Rome, which would cause war with France.He then organized a plebiscite (popular vote) in the conquered southern Italian territories.Southern Italy voted to join with Northern Italy.
14A Unified ItalyVenetia and Rome became part of the new nation in 1866 & 1870 respectively.The new Italy was a parliamentary monarchy under King Victor Emmanuel.The new state was neither radical nor democratic.Only a small amount of Italian males had the right to vote.
15What was the primary socio-geographical divide in the new Kingdom of Italy?
16Austria vs. Prussia Austria initially excluded from the Zollverein. Tariff duties reduced so Austria’s highly protected industry could not join.Austria tried to destroy Zollverein unsuccessfully.By 1853, all German states had joined Zollverein except Austria.
17King Wilhelm I Wanted to reform the military and double its size. This required more taxes and a bigger defense budgetThe parliament at the time was dominated by the wealthy middle class.
18What did the middle class members of the Prussian Parliament want?
19Otto von Bismarck Born to the Junker class Flexible, pragmatic Ultra patrioticAppointed Chief Minister in 1862.Routinely defied parliament.
21Austro-Prussian War of 1866 Lasted 7 weeksPrussians utilized railroads, breechloading needle gun. (i.e. had technical edge).Defeated Austrians decisively at Battle of SadowaNorthern German states united with Prussia and formed the North German Confederation.
23North German Confederation Each state retained local government.Wilhelm I became president of confederation.Bismarck as chancellor, responsible only to the president.These two men controlled the army and foreign affairs.Legislature of two houses.
24Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) What pretext did Prussia use to get France to declare war on them? Ems TelegramWhat happened in Paris after Napoleon III was captured at Sedan? Paris CommuneWhy did the South German states side with Prussia? Fear of a common enemy.What were the terms of peace the German Empire imposed on France? Alsace Lorraine annexed, charged a war indemnity.