2 Italian Unification Story of three men Giuseppe Mazzini—publicist “The Heart”Camillo Cavour—stateman “The Head”Giuseppe Garibaldi—soldier “The Sword”Until 1850 Italy was dominated by outsidersAustrian Empire and Pope led oppositionMany different visions of a united ItalyMany were apathetic to idea
5 NationalismMovement spread by a secret society—Carbonari(coal-burners)Influenced by French RevolutionLed revolts in 1820 and 1831Giuseppe Mazzini—prophet of Italian NationalismFormed new group called Young ItalyCampaigns for national Italian dialect
6 Unification comes by military and diplomatic means Primarily under the leadership of the one state in Italy under Italian control, the Kingdom of Sardinia/Piedmont
7 Count Camillo Cavour Prime Minister of Kingdom of Sardinia Build Sardinia/Piedmont into modern economically sound stateClear objectives for Sardinia- Politics of realityNorthern Italy under Sardinia’s controlNot interested in Southern ItalyToo different-poor and agrarianEstablish kingdom as a serious European powerFights in Crimean warNegotiates French support in war with Austria
8 Creation of a Unified Northern Italy Prompted by Piedmont’s victory over Austria, several Italian revolt.Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna revolt and vote to join Piedmont.By 1869, Italy consists of three region, a northern Italian Kingdom, the Papal States and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies
10 Giuseppe Garibaldi Leader of a guerilla movement Expedition of the Thousand (Red Shirts)Venture south into Sicily to bring about revolutionQuickly overthrow the corrupt government of the Two SiciliesCavour now invades the south and “takes” (or is it “unites”?) the prize from Garibaldi.
11 Unification By 1861, all of Italy except Rome and Venetia are united. Leadership under King Victor Emmanuel II of SardiniaVenetia will be added in 1866Rome seized in 1870.
13 Problems after Unification Italy—poor w/ large illiterate populationDivision between church and stateEconomic divisions between the North and SouthLocalism too strong in many areasDevelopment of local strongmenLittle knowledge of and participation in gov’t
14 Solutions to problems?Industry and trade were fostered by govt—transformismoImproved ag methods dev’dGov’t encouraged emigration to US—ease over-popn due to high birthrateHigh taxes pd to support growing Army and Navy
15 German Unification The last big unification piece of the 19th century Most important in Europe from 1848 to 1914Transformed the economic, military and diplomatic balance of powerThe question of German unification would center around the two dominate German speaking countries of the period—Prussia and AustriaAfter 1848, Prussia was the increasing dominate power.
16 Otto von BismarckComes to dominate Prussian, then German politics fromPrussian Chancellor from 1862One of most remarkable leaders of 19th centuryCame from Junker class (noble landlord) in East PrussiaPracticed realpolitik, little faith in liberalism or nationalism. Practical, pragmatic. Any means necessaryConservative, but willing to work with middle class liberalsIron and Blood speech(1862)—willing to use force to unify Germany, strengthen Prussia
18 Early Steps to Unification Existing PiecesZollverein—customs unionMaintained economic linksExcluded AustriaFrankfurt Assembly—Assembly of all German states to exchange ideasBismarck needed to establish dominance in the Prussian governmentWeaken power of liberalsIssue of taxation for expanded army
19 Wars of Unification War with Denmark(1864) War with Austria(1866) Dispute over Schleswig-HolsteinSupported by AustriaJoint occupationWar with Austria(1866)Seven Weeks’ WarProvoked war in Schleswig and HolsteinQuickly defeated Austria and German alliesAustria forced to give up role within Germany
21 North German Confederation Formation of the North German ConfederationPrussia annexes Hanover, Hesse, Nassau and FrankfurtSets up basis of political structuresAppearance of liberalism but in reality a military monarchy2 House Legislature-- Bundesrat and ReichstagLittle real powerLiberalism defeated by dream of unification
22 Franco-Prussian WarIn many ways can be viewed as the first shots of World War I.Napoleon III realizes after Prussian victories in Denmark and Austria that he must prevent German unification.Bismarck’s goal was to complete unification by bringing into union the Catholic South German states.
23 Ems Telegram Bismarck finds an diplomatic issue as excuse for war Question of member of German Royal Family assuming Spanish throneFrance opposes for strategic purposes (encirclement)Pressures Wilhelm I to refusePushes issue too farBismarck edits telegram from Kaiser –makes it appear as a German insult to FrancePopular press forces France to declare war on Prussia—matter of honor
24 War France is ill-prepared for conflict War was over in 6 months Technologically backward compared to PrussiaWar was over in 6 monthsThe states of Southern Germany joined the Northern German Confederation against France.Prussians strike a devastating defeat on the French at SedanCaptured 100,000 French troopsTake Napoleon III prisoner
25 Peace Terms France forced to pay a humiliating price for defeat 5 billion franc reparationsAlsace and Lorraine turned over to GermanyImportant industrial region of FranceNorthern France occupied for three yearsPlants the seeds for future yearFrench will vow revenge for embarrassment
26 Creation of a German Empire Bismarck and Wilhelm I proclaim a German Empire at Versailles.Another insult to FranceGerman Princes remained heads of their respective states within the Empire.Culmination of Bismarck’s activitiesConsolidated German Empire: uniform currency and legal codeSuppress Catholics in South: Kulturkampf:restrict church , esp. in ed and clergy
28 ImpactFact and manner of German unification produced long term effects on EuropeNew German Empire far stronger than Prussia aloneMilitarily, economically it is strongest nation in EuropeBlow to European liberalismNew state is a conservative monarchyMajor impact on Balance of PowerFrance and Austria weakenedSimmering French hatredGermany will now become a defender of the status quo
29 Other Actions of Bismarck Tried to suppress the socialists:Socialists appealed to urban workers who resented low pay and bad working conditions.Bismarck tried to suppress them forcibly 1878 w/ anti-socialist laws, but failed.By the 1880’s, Bismarck began to undermine them by supporting social legislation to gain the support of the workers.These programs incl. unemployment insurance & workers’ comp., and soc. Sec. payments for retired Germans.
30 Germany1888: William II (defender of divine right) became king and Bismarck remained the chancellor, until he was dismissed by William.William II did the following:Built up a strong army & navyEncouraged industry & commerceEncouraged imperialism and annexation
31 Austria-HungaryEmperor Francis-Joseph tried to solve problems, they were too great for one rulerProblems faced by the empire included:The great number of national minorities which were living in the empireOver-extension of the empire into areas, such as ItalyFailure to compete with the growing power of Prussia.Absolutist, dynastic and agrarian liberal, nationalistic and industrial
32 Dual MonarchyRevolts occurred in the Hungarian part of the empire between 1861 & 1867.Defeat by Prussia and losses in Italy cause Austria to decl. in influence and power1867: Ausgleich:Austria and Hungary under one monarch--Dual Monarchy (Austro-Hungarian empire)Hungary given control of its own affairs and control over its own minorities, make its own lawsthe Hungarians (Magyars) dominant over other nationalities in regiondoes not give autonomy to other minorities\Hungarians recog’d the emperor and accepted common policies for finances & foreign policy.Austria faced many revolts between 1860 & 1914