Presentation on theme: "The Civil War 1861-1865 Part 3. Life Behind the Lines The Union and Confederate governments struggled to support their armies and care for their citizens."— Presentation transcript:
The Civil War Part 3
Life Behind the Lines The Union and Confederate governments struggled to support their armies and care for their citizens.
The Trent Affair Jefferson Davis sent 2 representatives to England and France. John Slidell and James Mason. They were on the British mail ship Trent.
A Union warship stopped the Trent in international waters and removed the two Confederates. An outraged British government sent troops to Canada and threatened war if they were not released.
Republicans in Control of Congress With southern Democrats out of the U. S. Congress, the Republicans had little opposition. 1. Pacific Railroad Actallowed the federal government to give land and money to companies for the construction of a railroad line from Nebraska to the Pacific Coast.
2. Homestead Actoffered free government land to settlers. 3. Congress raised tariff rates. 4. Congress passed the first federal income tax.
5. Congress reformed the nations banking system. 6. Congress created a national currency. Greenbacks-The paper money was not backed by gold.
Emergency Wartime Actions The North needed loyalty of Kentucky and Missouri in order to keep control of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. To secure Kentucky, Lincoln put the state under martial law for part of the war.
Some Democrats in Congress raised their voices in protest against the war. They were nicknamed Copperheads. To silence opponents of the war, Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus---legal protection requiring that a court determine if a person is lawfully imprisoned.
The Emancipation Proclamation- Lincoln proclaimed that on January 1, 1863, slaves in areas of rebellion against the government would be free. (in the Confederate states)
The Hardships of War Point Lookouta POW camp in Maryland Camp Chasea POW camp in Ohio Andersonvilleprison camp in Georgia
Improving Medical Conditions Clara Barton provided supplies and first aid to Union troops. She founded the American Red Cross.
Improving Medical Conditions The United States Sanitary Commission was created to improve conditions during the Civil War.
Section 3 The Tide of War Turns Despite Southern victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, the tide of war turned in the summer of 1863, when the North won important battles at Gettysburg and Vicksburg.
Battle of Fredericksburg Throughout the day, Burnside ordered charge after charge into the Confederate gunfire. By nightfall, the Union had suffered nearly 13,000 causalities.
Battle of Chancellorville Union general, Joe Hooker, planned to move the Union army around Fredericksburg and attack the Confederates from behind. Hooker ordered his men to build defenses in the thick woods after seeing some of Lees troops in front of him.
Lee became aware of Hookers plan and had sent more than 40,000 Confederate soldiers westward to meet Hookers troops. About 10,000 troops remained in Fredericksburg and were ordered to build fires so the army across the river would not realize most of the army was gone.
Lee divided his army a second time. General Jackson and 26,000 men marched around the Union army for an afternoon attack on its right side. The movement of Jacksons troops was concealed by heavy woods.
That night Jackson left the Confederate camp to scout the enemy positions. As he returned, Confederate soldiers mistook him for the enemy and opened fire. May 10 th, Jackson died.
The Battle of Gettysburg Lee marched his troops northward. 1. Lee hoped to find supplies in Pennsylvania. 2. Lee also hoped a major Confederate victory on Northern soil would convince the Union to give up the war.
The Battle of Gettysburg
July 1 some Confederate troops entered the town of Gettysburg looking for a supply of shoes and encountered a unit of Union Calvary and a fight developed. The battle lasted 3 days. It ended with Pickets Charge.
July 3, 1863 Union troops under the command of General Grant made several attempts to capture or bypass Vicksburg, a city which guarded the Mississippi River.
After several unsuccessful attempts Grant decided to lay siege to the city. On July 4, Confederate troops at Vicksburg surrendered. The battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg marked the turning point of the war.