2Life Behind the LinesThe Union and Confederate governments struggled to support their armies and care for their citizens.
3The Trent AffairJefferson Davis sent 2 representatives to England and France. John Slidell and James Mason. They were on the British mail ship Trent.
4A Union warship stopped the Trent in international waters and removed the two Confederates. An outraged British government sent troops to Canada and threatened war if they were not released.
5Republicans in Control of Congress With southern Democrats out of the U. S. Congress, the Republicans had little opposition.1. Pacific Railroad Act—allowed the federal government to give land and money to companies for the construction of a railroad line from Nebraska to the Pacific Coast.
62. Homestead Act—offered free government land to settlers. 3. Congress raised tariff rates.4. Congress passed the first federal income tax.
75. Congress reformed the nation’s banking system. 6. Congress created a national currency.Greenbacks-The paper money was not backed by gold.
8Emergency Wartime Actions The North needed loyalty of Kentucky and Missouri in order to keep control of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. To secure Kentucky, Lincoln put the state under martial law for part of the war.
9Some Democrats in Congress raised their voices in protest against the war. They were nicknamed Copperheads.To silence opponents of the war, Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus---legal protection requiring that a court determine if a person is lawfully imprisoned.
10The Emancipation Proclamation- Lincoln proclaimed that on January 1, 1863, slaves in areas of rebellion against the government would be free.(in the Confederate states)
11Camp Chase—a POW camp in Ohio Andersonville—prison camp in Georgia The Hardships of WarPoint Lookout—a POW camp in MarylandCamp Chase—a POW camp in OhioAndersonville—prison camp in Georgia
12Improving Medical Conditions Clara Barton provided supplies and first aid to Union troops. She founded the American Red Cross.
13Improving Medical Conditions The United States Sanitary Commission was created to improve conditions during the Civil War.
14Section 3The Tide of War TurnsDespite Southern victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, the tide of war turned in the summer of 1863, when the North won important battles at Gettysburg and Vicksburg.
15Battle of Fredericksburg Throughout the day, Burnside ordered charge after charge into the Confederate gunfire. By nightfall, the Union had suffered nearly 13,000 causalities.
16Battle of Chancellorville Union general, Joe Hooker, planned to move the Union army around Fredericksburg and attack the Confederates from behind.Hooker ordered his men to build defenses in the thick woods after seeing some of Lee’s troops in front of him.
17Lee became aware of Hooker’s plan and had sent more than 40,000 Confederate soldiers westward to meet Hooker’s troops. About 10,000 troops remained in Fredericksburg and were ordered to build fires so the army across the river would not realize most of the army was gone.
18Lee divided his army a second time Lee divided his army a second time. General Jackson and 26,000 men marched around the Union army for an afternoon attack on its right side. The movement of Jackson’s troops was concealed by heavy woods.
19That night Jackson left the Confederate camp to scout the enemy positions. As he returned, Confederate soldiers mistook him for the enemy and opened fire.May 10th, Jackson died.
20The Battle of Gettysburg Lee marched his troops northward.1. Lee hoped to find supplies in Pennsylvania.2. Lee also hoped a major Confederate victory on Northern soil would convince the Union to give up the war.
22July 1 some Confederate troops entered the town of Gettysburg looking for a supply of shoes and encountered a unit of Union Calvary and a fight developed.The battle lasted 3 days. It ended with Picket’s Charge.
23July 3, 1863Union troops under the command of General Grant made several attempts to capture or bypass Vicksburg, a city which guarded the Mississippi River.
24After several unsuccessful attempts Grant decided to lay siege to the city. On July 4, Confederate troops at Vicksburg surrendered.The battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg marked the turning point of the war.