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John G. Mehm University of Hartford Models of Training in Supervision and Consultation: A Sampler Friday, January 21, 2011 A Model of Doctoral Training.

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Presentation on theme: "John G. Mehm University of Hartford Models of Training in Supervision and Consultation: A Sampler Friday, January 21, 2011 A Model of Doctoral Training."— Presentation transcript:

1 John G. Mehm University of Hartford Models of Training in Supervision and Consultation: A Sampler Friday, January 21, 2011 A Model of Doctoral Training in Consultation

2 CPS 670: Consultation in Healthcare Delivery Systems: Case Perspectives Two 1-credit courses in consultation CPS 671: Consultation in Healthcare Delivery Systems: Systems Perspectives

3 The Consultation Dilemma Training in psychological consultation often places the doctoral student in a particularly challenging situation: A trainee is placed prematurely in the role of expert. Referral questions often range from the extremely difficult to the impossible.

4 What to Do? Is it possible to develop competencies in consultation before the student becomes a full-fledged expert? Is there more to being a consultant than just being an expert? What is the best sequence for development of competencies in consultation?

5 APA (2007) Guidelines Consulting is important to the effectiveness of many (if not all) practicing psychologists to greater or lesser degrees. Completing a doctoral program in psychology does not [necessarily] prepare one to provide the best possible consulting services. There is a body of knowledge and skills unique to this particular application of psychology. American Psychological Association. (2007). Guidelines for education and training at the doctoral and postdoctoral levels in consulting psychology and organizational consulting psychology. American Psychologist, 62(9),

6 APA (2007) Guidelines Three relevant areas of competency for consulting practice: (I) Individual (G) Group (O) Organization / system / intersystem American Psychological Association. (2007). Guidelines for education and training at the doctoral and postdoctoral levels in consulting psychology and organizational consulting psychology. American Psychologist, 62(9),

7 Consultation Competencies (Fouad et al., 2009) The ability to provide expert guidance or professional assistance in response to a clients needs or goals Three major tasks Role of Consultant Addressing Referral Questions Communication of Findings Three developmental milestones Readiness for Practicum Readiness for Internship Readiness for Entry to Practice

8 Role of Consultant: Readiness for Internship Essential Component: Knowledge of the consultants role and its unique features as distinguished from other professional roles (such as therapist, supervisor, teacher) Behavioral Anchors: Articulates common and distinctive roles of consultant Compares and contrasts consultation, clinical, and supervision roles

9 Essential Component: Knowledge of and ability to select appropriate means of assessment to answer referral questions Behavioral Anchors: Implements systematic approach to data collection in a consultative role Identifies sources and types of assessment tools Addressing Referral Questions: Readiness for Internship

10 Communication of Findings: Readiness for Internship Essential Component: Identifies and acquires literature relevant to unique consultation methods (assessment and intervention) within systems, clients, or settings Behavioral Anchor: Identifies appropriate interventions based on consultation assessment findings

11 Clinical Consultation Course Course Overview What is consultation? What is a healthcare delivery system? What are the modes and processes of consultation? What is the role of the psychologist as a consultant in a healthcare delivery system? Which consultation skills are essential?

12 What Is Consultation? A process whereby one individual (the consultee) who has responsibility for providing a service to others (the clients) voluntarily seeks assistance from another person (the consultant) who is believed to possess some special expertise which will help the consultee provide a better service to his/her clients. (Orford, 1992)

13 Key Characteristics of Consultation It is a triadic relationship: consultant, consultee, and client It is voluntary It is focused on improving service The consultant utilizes his/her expertise

14 The Consultation Relationship (Caplan, 1970) The consultation relationship differs from a supervisory or educational relationship: While the consultant is an expert, the consultee is the customer in charge of the relationship

15 The Consultation Relationship (Caplan, 1970) Consultee has no obligation to follow the consultants advice Consultant has no responsibility for the consultees work The relationship between consultant and consultee tends to be collaborative

16 Goals of Consultation Main goal: to improve the consultees performance (rather than improve his/her insight or sense of well-being). Secondary goal: to improve the consultees ability to function without the consultant when similar situations are encountered in the future.

17 What Skills are Needed to be an Effective Consultant? 1.Have an organized and flexible approach to problem-solving. 2.Have solid clinical skills (esp. mood, substance abuse, and cognitive disorders). 3.Be a good communicator. 4.Understand the consultation process. 5.Understand cultural diversity. 6.Be familiar with crisis intervention. 7.Think in terms of organizations & systems.

18 Consultant provides organized approach to assist clinician work with client to: Gain an intellectual understanding of the circumstances. Express feelings. Explore coping resources. Reopen/expand social support network. Set reasonable goals (which can be achieved and reinforced). Consultation example: Crisis intervention

19 Organizational Consultation Course Issues from I-G-O model 1. How can an individual function more effectively within an existing organization or system of care? 2. How can a group (team, department, division) function more effectively within an existing organization or system of care? 3. How can the organization or system of care make positive changes to function more effectively overall?

20 Management-administration Competencies (Fouad et al., 2009) Manage the direct delivery of services and/or the administration of organizations, programs, or agencies Four major tasks Management Administration Leadership Evaluation of Management and Leadership Benchmarks for three developmental milestones Readiness for Practicum Readiness for Internship Readiness for Entry to Practice

21 Management: Readiness for Internship Essential Component: Participates in management of direct delivery of services (DDS); responds appropriately in management hierarchy Behavioral Anchors: Responds appropriately to managers and subordinates Manages DDS under supervision, e.g., scheduling, billing, maintenance of records Identifies responsibilities, challenges, and processes of management

22 Administration: Readiness for Internship Essential Component: Knowledge of and ability to effectively function within professional settings and organizations, including compliance with policies and procedures Behavioral Anchors: Articulates approved organizational polices and procedures Completes reports and other assignments promptly Complies with record-keeping guidelines Demonstrates understanding of quality improvement (QI) procedures in direct delivery of services, basic management of direct services, QI procedures

23 Leadership: Readiness for Internship Essential Component: Recognition of own role in creating policy, participation in system change, and management structure Behavioral Anchors: Articulates agency mission and purpose and its connection to goals and objectives Implements procedures to accomplish goals and objectives

24 Evaluation of Management and Leadership: Readiness for Internship Essential Component: Able to develop and prepared to offer constructive criticism and suggestions regarding management and leadership of organization Behavioral Anchor: Identifies strengths and weaknesses of management and leadership of organization Provides input appropriately, participates in organizational assessment

25 Referral Questions: What are Common Organizational Issues? 1.Communication 2.Decision-making 3.Conflict resolution 4.Cultural diversity 5.Transition of leadership 6.Implementing change 7.Responding to environmental events (external threats) 8.Workplace deviance (internal threats) 9.Professional image 10.Teamwork

26 3 Core Issues for Teaching Organizational Consultation Excellence Leadership Decision-making

27 7 Good Questions for Understanding Organizations What is viewed as excellence in the organization? What values do the leaders reinforce? How are decisions made? How are individual differences (sex, ethnicity, status) treated? How is underperformance handled? How loyal are employees? How is leadership developed?

28 4 Important Functions of Leaders 1. Leaders are needed to provide strategic direction and vision to organizations. 2. They engage in motivation and coaching behaviors. 3. They enforce and interpret organizational policies. 4. They are important in obtaining resources for groups.

29 Leadership Development and Career Growth: Where does discomfort arise? Executive Leadership Skills Technical Skills Entry level Supervisory Managerial growthgrowth Discomfort Zone

30 Three Procedures for Making Decisions 1. Consensus (100% approval) 2. Simple majority (> 51% approval) Everything else (?% approval)

31 So, do I need an MBA, too? Datar, Garvin, & Cullen (2010) Rethinking the MBA: Business Education at a Crossroads According to business school deans and business leaders, even MBAs lack these essentials: sufficient leadership development a "global mindset" skill in navigating organizational realities


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