Presentation on theme: "Challenging Segregation. Did You Know? In 1964 Martin Luther King, Jr., at the age of 35, was the youngest person ever to receive the Nobel Peace Prize."— Presentation transcript:
Did You Know? In 1964 Martin Luther King, Jr., at the age of 35, was the youngest person ever to receive the Nobel Peace Prize
The Sit-In Movement A. In 1960 four African Americans staged a sit-in at a Woolworths whites-only lunch counter. This led to a mass movement for civil rights. Soon sit-ins were occurring across the nation. B. Students like Jesse Jackson from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College felt that sit-ins gave them the power to change things. Discussion Question Why did the sit-in movement gain attention of Americans across the nation? (Even after the demonstrators of the sit- ins were verbally and physically abused, they remained peaceful.)
SNCC A. As sit-ins became more popular, it was necessary to choose a leader to coordinate the effort. Ella Baker, executive director of the SCLC, urged students to create their own organization. The students formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Among SNCCs early leaders were Marion Barry, later the mayor of Washington, D.C., and John Lewis, later a member of Congress. B. Robert Moses, an SNCC volunteer from New York, pointed out that most of the civil rights movement was focused on urban areas, and rural African Americans needed help as well.
C. When they went South, SNCC volunteers had their lives threatened and others were beaten. In 1964 three SNCC workers were murdered as they tried to register African Americans to vote. D. SNCC organizer, Fannie Lou Hamer, was arrested in Mississippi after encouraging African Americans to vote. While in jail, she was beaten by police. Later she helped organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. She challenged the legality of the segregated Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic National Convention.
Discussion Question What was the role of the SNCC in the civil rights movement? (The group led student sit- ins to desegregate public facilities in Southern communities. Members of the group went to rural areas of the Deep South to register African Americans to vote.)
III. The Freedom Riders A. In 1961 CORE leader James Farmer asked teams of African Americans and white Americans to travel into the South to integrate bus terminals. The teams became known as Freedom Riders. B. Violence erupted in several Alabama cities, making national news and shocking many Americans. President John F. Kennedy was compelled to control the violence.
Mississippi Burning The three murdered Freedom Riders were: James Chaney, a black man from Mississippi Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman - white men from New York They took part in the 1964 program to organize voter education and registration programs throughout Mississippi. The program was called "Freedom Summer."
Discussion Question What happened when the Freedom Riders arrived in Anniston, Birmingham, and Montgomery, Alabama? (Angry mobs of white people attacked the Freedom Riders, throwing rocks and slitting the bus tires. In Birmingham, the riders were met by a gang that beat them.)
John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights A. During John F. Kennedys presidential campaign in 1960, he supported the civil rights movement, which resulted in African American votes that helped him narrowly win the race. B. Once in office, President Kennedy became cautious on civil rights, realizing that in order to get other programs passed through Congress, he would have to avoid new civil rights legislation.
C. President Kennedy had his brother, Robert F. Kennedy of the Justice Department, actively support the civil rights movement. Robert Kennedy helped African Americans register to vote by having lawsuits filed throughout the South.
D. When violence broke out in Montgomery Alabama, the Kennedy brothers urged the Freedom Riders to stop for a cooling off period. A deal was struck between Kennedy and Senator James Eastland of Mississippi. The senator stopped the violence, and Kennedy agreed not to object if the Mississippi police arrested the Freedom Riders.
E. The CORE used all their funds to bail the riders out of jail, which threatened future rides. Thurgood Marshall offered the use of the NAACPs Legal Defense Fund, and the rides began again. President Kennedy ordered the Interstate Commerce Commission to increase regulations against segregation at bus terminals. By 1962 segregation on interstate travel had ended.
F. In 1962 James Meredith, an African American air force veteran, tried to register at thesegregated University of Mississippi. Meredith was met with the governor blocking his path. President Kennedy ordered 500 federal marshals to escort Meredith to the campus. A full-scale riot broke out with 160 marshals being wounded. The army sent in thousands of troops. For the remainder of the year, Meredith attended classes under federal guard until he graduated the following August.
The year began with George Wallace vowing "segregation now, segregation tomorrow and segregation forever" in his inaugural speech. During his campaign, Wallace talked of physically putting himself between the schoolhouse door and any attempt to integrate Alabama's all-white public schools. So when a federal judge ordered Malone and Hood be admitted to the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa that summer, Wallace had the perfect opportunity to fulfill his pledge
Alabama Gov. George Wallace stood at the door of Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama in a symbolic attempt to block two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from enrolling at the school. It was the same year that civil rights marchers had been turned back with police dogs and fire hoses in Birmingham, Ala.
Kelly Ingram Park The Childrens March
Eugene Bull Connor
G. Martin Luther King, Jr., was frustrated with the civil rights movement. As the Cuban missile crisis escalated, foreign policy became the main priority at the White House. King agreed to hold demonstrations in Alabama, knowing they might end in violence but feeling that they were the only way to get the presidents attention. King was jailed, and after his release the protests began again. The televised events were seen by the nation. Kennedy ordered his aides to prepare a civil rights bill.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 A. After Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the way for two African Americans to register for college, President Kennedy appeared on national television to announce his civil rights bill.
B. Martin Luther King, Jr., wanted to pressure Congress to get Kennedys civil rights bill through. On August 28, 1963, he led 200,000 demonstrators of all races to the nations capital and staged a peaceful rally.
C. Opponents of the civil rights bill did whatever they could to slow the procedure to pass it. The bill could easily pass in the House of Representatives, but it faced difficulty in the Senate. Senators could speak for as long as they wanted while debating a bill. A filibuster occurs when a small group of senators take turns speaking and refuse to stop the debate to allow the bill to be voted on.
Today a filibuster can be stopped if at least three-fifths of the Senate (60 senators) vote for cloture, a motion which cuts off debate and forces a vote. In 1960 a cloture had to be two-thirds, or 67 senators. The minority of senators opposed to the bill could easily prevent it from passing into law.
D. After Kennedys assassination, President Johnson committed himself to getting Kennedys program, including the civil rights bill, through Congress. E. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 gave the federal government broad power to stop racial discrimination in the segregation in public places, to bring lawsuits to end school segregation, and to require employers to end discrimination in the workplace.
The Struggle for Voting Rights A. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 did little to guarantee the right to vote. Many African American voters were attacked, beaten, and killed. Bombs exploded in many African American businesses and churches. Martin Luther King, Jr., decided it was time for another protest to protect African American voting rights.
B. The protest was staged for Selma, Alabama, where African Americans were the majority of the population while only 3 percent were registered to vote. Their march for freedom began in Selma and headed toward the state capitol in Montgomery. Sheriff Jim Clark ordered 200 state troopers and deputized citizens to rush the peaceful demonstrators. The brutal attack became known as Bloody Sunday, and the nation saw the images on television.
C. On August 3, 1965, the House of Representatives passed the voting bill, with the Senate passing the bill the following day. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 gave the attorney general the right to send federal examiners to register qualified voters, bypassing the local officials who often refused to register African Americans. This resulted in 250,000 new African American voters and an increase in African American elected officials in the South.
Discussion Question How did the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 mark a turning point in the civil rights movement? (Two goals were now achieved: to outlaw segregation and to pass federal laws to stop discrimination and protect voting rights.)
Martin Luther King Jr. Born in Atlanta, Georgia. Graduated Morehouse College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Sociology. Later, at Boston University, King received a Ph.D. in systematic theology. In 1953, at the age of 26, King became pastor at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery Alabama. His start as a Civil Rights leader came during the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Career As A Leader In 1955 he became involved in The Montgomery Bus Boycott. The Boycott was the start to his incredible career as the most famous leader of the Civil Rights movement. He went on to deliver numerous powerful speeches promoting peace and desegregation. During The March On Washington he delivered one of the most famous speeches of 20 th century titled, I Have A Dream Before he was assassinated in 1968, he won the Nobel Peace Prize.
Civil Disobedience In 1957 King helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). A group that used the authority and power of Black churches to organize non-violent protest to support the Civil Rights Movement. King believed in the philosophy used by Gandhi in India known as nonviolent civil disobedience. He applied this philosophy to protest organized by the SCLC. The civil disobedience led to media coverage of the daily inequities suffered by Southern Blacks. The televised segregation violence led to mass public sympathy. The Civil Rights Movement became the most important political topic during the early 60s.
Letter From a Birmingham Jail King, wrote the letter after being arrested at a peaceful protest in Birmingham, Alabama. The letter was in response to a letter sent to him by eight Alabama Clergymen called, A Call For Unity. The men recognized that injustices were occurring in Birmingham but believed that the battles for freedom should be fought in the courtroom in not in the streets. In the letter, Letter from Birmingham Jail, King justified civil disobedience by saying that without forceful action, true civil rights would never be achieved. Direct action is justified in the face of unjust laws.
Letters From a Birmingham Jail (cont.) In the letter King justifies civil disobedience in the town of Birmingham. I cannot sit idly in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. There can be no gain saying the fact that racial injustice engulfs this community. Birmingham is probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States. Its ugly record of brutality is widely known. Negroes have experienced grossly unjust treatment in the courts. Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself. We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor, it must be demanded by the oppressed. Wait has almost always meant 'never.
March On Washington More than 20,000 Black and White Americans celebrated in a joyous day of song, prayer and speeches. The march was lead by a group of important clergy men, civil rights leaders, and politicians. Martin Luther Kings I Have A Dream speech was the climax of the day.
I Have A Dream Speech In a powerful speech, Martin Luther King Jr. stated eloquently that he desired a world were Blacks and whites to coexist equally. Kings speech was a rhetoric example oh the Black Baptist sermon style. The speech used The Bible, The Declaration of Independence, The United States Constitution and The Emancipation Proclamation as sources. He also used an incredible number of symbols in his poetic address.
I Have A Dream Speech (cont.) The powerful words of Martin Luther King Jr. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: - 'We hold these truths to be self- evident, that all men are created equal. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics - will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"
Malcolm X X Born in Omaha Nebraska, Malcolm Little was the son of a Baptist preacher who urged Blacks to stand up for their rights. X His father was killed by White Supremacist in Michigan, in X After time, Malcolm moved to Harlem where he became involved in gambling, drug dealing and robbery. X Malcolm Was Arrested at the age of 20 for armed robbery. In jail he studied the teaching of the Elijah Muhammad.
Malcolm X: The Activist X Malcolm X made constant accusations of racism and demanded violent actions of self defense. X He constantly retold the injustices his people suffered in the past. X Malcolm X gathered wide spread admiration from African Americans and wide spread fear from Whites. However White college students could not ignore the harsh realities of his preaching's.
Malcolm X Speaks, 1965 X Be peaceful, be courteous, obey the law, respect everyone; but if someone puts his hand on you, send him to the cemetery. X Nobody can give you freedom. Nobody can give you equality or justice or anything. If you're a man, you take it. X You can't separate peace from freedom because no one can be at peace unless he has his freedom.
Tension In The Nation Of Islam X By the start of the 60s Tension was growing in The Nation of Islam. Malcolm X was exposed to rumors that Elijah Muhammad had indulged in extramarital affairs. Adultery is shunned in the Muslim doctrine. X Malcolm Believed that Elijah Muhammad was jealous of his increasing popularity. X The Nation of Islam blamed Malcolm X for his controversial remarks regarding John F. Kennedy Jr.
The JFK Controversy X After the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X made a speech. Malcolm claimed that the violence Kennedy failed to prevent ended up to come back and claim his life. He stated that assassination was an example of the chickens coming home to roost" He later stated, "Chickens coming home to roost never made me sad. It only made me glad." This comment lead to widespread public dismay.
Pilgrimage to Mecca X In 1964, during a pilgrimage to Mecca, Malcolm discovered that orthodox Muslims preach equality among races. X Malcolms new knowledge and growing distrust with the NOI, caused him to desert his argument that all Whites are the devil. X Malcolm X never abandoned his theory that Racism had destroyed the nation and that only Blacks could free themselves. X In 1965 Malcolm X was assassinated by a Black Muslim at a New York City rally.
Malcolm X Quotes (On King) X He got the peace prize, we got the problem.... If I'm following a general, and he's leading me into a battle, and the enemy tends to give him rewards, or awards, I get suspicious of him. Especially if he gets a peace award before the war is over. X I'll say nothing against him. At one time the whites in the United States called him a racialist, and extremist, and a Communist. Then the Black Muslims came along and the whites thanked the Lord for Martin Luther King. X I want Dr. King to know that I didn't come to Selma to make his job difficult. I really did come thinking I could make it easier. If the white people realize what the alternative is, perhaps they will be more willing to hear Dr. King. X Dr. King wants the same thing I want -- freedom!