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The Sit –in Movement Section 2 : The Movement Gains Ground

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1 The Sit –in Movement Section 2 : The Movement Gains Ground
Greensboro, N.C. – Woolworth’s Dept. Store 1st sit-in Sit-in movement brought large numbers of idealistic, energized college students into the civil rights movement SNCC – Student Non Violent Coordinating Committee organized by students played key role in desegregating public facilities in South registered African Americans to vote in Deep South

2 Civil Rights Act of 1957 Protect voting rights of African-Americans
SCLC began campaign to register 2 million new African American voters primarily in the South Fanny Lou Hammer – African American sharecropper beaten, sent to jail, evicted from her farm – all for registering to vote, urging others to register to vote.

3 The Freedom-Riders Pg. 479??? Bus travel in South was still segregated although courts had outlawed segregation. ( Boynton vs. Virginia, 1960 ) Freedom Riders – groups of white/African American college student volunteers took a 2 bus trips from Wash. D.C. to New Orleans to protest, used “white “ restrooms in bus stations sat in the front of the bus Eugene “Bull” Connor – Birmingham , Alabama public official, did not protect civil rights protesters from being beaten.. (Mother’s Day)



6 Kennedy’s Response James Meredith -
Forbids federal government from discriminating against African-Americans in hiring & promotions. Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) - tightened laws against segregated bus terminals. James Meredith - African-American Air Force veteran applied to Univ. of Mississippi (Ole Miss) Attended classes under eye of federal soldiers until graduation

7 Civil Rights Act of 1964 George Wallace – governor of Alabama,
blocked entrance to Univ. of Alabama from 2 African American students entering. Medgar Evers – African American activist from Mississippi murdered.

8 Violence in Birmingham Spring - 1963
MLK decides that more demonstrations are needed to get Pres. Kennedy to become more active in supporting civil rights. MLK stages protests in Birmingham AL. “Bull” Connor was now running for mayor. King gets arrested, - writes Letter from Birmingham while in jail King released, protests started up again. Bull Connor responds with force, used dogs. High pressure hoses and clubs on protesters.


10 March on Washington 200,000 people demonstrate for civil rights in Wash. D.C. in Aug. , 1963. Gathered at Lincoln Memorial to hear MLK give “ I Have a Dream” speech.

11 16th Avenue Baptist Church bombings.

12 Bill Becomes Law John Kennedy is assassinated.
President Johnson and some members of Congress trying to get civil rights passed. Some Southern Congressional members tried to block passage of bill through filibustering. Filibuster – lawmakers give long speeches to hold up legislative business. Cloture- Congress caucuses to break filibuster Sen. Strom Thurmond - Spoke for 24 hrs. 18 mins.

13 Bill Becomes Law Lyndon Johnson becomes president, is able to convince Congress to pass Civil Rights Bill of 1964 Civil Rights Bill of 1964 – broad powers given to federal government to prevent racial discrimination. : Equal access to all public facilities. Established EEOC Segregation illegal in most places of public accommodations. Gave U.S. attorney general more power to bring lawsuits to force school desegregation, and charges of job discrimination Required private employers to end discrimination in workplace.

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