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Chapter 20 Section 2 Freedom Riders

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1 Chapter 20 Section 2 Freedom Riders
Civil Rights activists would ride busses to test the Supreme Court decision that banned segregation on buses and in bus terminals which provoked violent reactions to force the JFK administration to enforce the law Riders were tormented and beaten Newspaper coverage and the violence provoked JFK to send federal marshals to protect the riders Segregation in all interstate travel facilities was banned

2 Chapter 20 Section 2 Integrating Ole Miss
Air Force Veteran James Meredith won a federal court case that allowed him to enroll in the all-white University of Mississippi (Ole Miss) Governor Ross Barnett refused to let him register Kennedy ordered federal marshals to escort Meredith Riots broke out and resulted in 2 deaths Federal officials accompanied Meredith to class to protect him

3 Chapter 20 Section 2 Birmingham Strictly enforced its segregation
Reputation for racial violence Reverend Shuttlesworth, MLK, and the SCLC tested their non-violence MLK and others were arrested during a nonviolent demonstration MLK wrote Letters from a Birmingham Jail With MLK out of jail, the SCLC planned a children’s march in Birmingham Police Commissioner “Bull” Connor arrested them Later, the police met the marchers with high pressure fire hoses and attack dogs TV cameras captured the scene Birmingham officials finally ended segregation and Convinced JFK to write a civil rights act

4 Chapter 20 Section 2 Kennedy Takes a Stand
• June 11, 1963 – JFK sends troops to force Gov. Wallace to desegregate the U of Alabama • He demanded that Congress pass a civil rights bill • Hours later Medgar Evers, an NAACP secretary was murdered • A new militancy developed – “Freedom Now!”

5 Chapter 20 Section 2 March on Washington
To show support for JFK’s civil rights bill, a march on Washington was formed Aug. 28, 1963, 250,000 people assembled in Washington MLK gave his “I have a Dream” speech Appeals for peace and harmony

6 Chapter 20 Section 2 Violence Persists
Two weeks after the I have a Dream speech, four girls were killed in a Birmingham church Two months later, JFK is assassinated LBJ pledges to carry out JFK’s work Passes Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibited discrimination Gave equal access to public accommodations

7 Chapter 20 Section 2 Fighting for Voting Rights
CORE and SNCC worked to register as many African-American voters as possible Project is known as Freedom Summer Attempt to influence Congress to pass as voting rights bill College Students were trained to help the project Met with resistance and violence

8 Chapter 20 Section 2 A New Political Party
African Americans needed a political voice SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) organized the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Fannie Lou Hamer spoke at the Democratic National Convention in 1964 Support poured in for the MFDP Civil Rights leaders compromised with the Democratic Party (MFDP got two seats in Congress)

9 Chapter 20 Section 2 Selma Campaign
SNCC led a voting rights campaign in Selma, Alabama After a demonstrator was shot, MLK organized a 50 mile march to Montgomery Mayhem broke out and TV crews caught police beating and gassing marchers Johnson presented a voting rights act and gave marchers federal protection

10 Chapter 20 Section 2 Voting Rights Act of 1965
Eliminated literacy tests Local officials could not deny suffrage The percentage of African American voters tripled in the south

11 Chapter 20 Section 2 Quiz 1.) What was a freedom rider?
a.) A person who wrote diaries of their civil rights experience b.) A person who rode vehicles in the civil rights marches c.) A person who rode buses to make sure the desegregation laws were being followed 2.) What happened a lot of times to Freedom riders? _________________________________________ 3.) At what school was James Meredith the first African American to attend? a.) University of Alabama b.) Ole Miss c.) University of Georgia 4.) What happened in response to Meredith’s attendance at this university? a.) Riots broke out b.) The south celebrated the integration of one of its universities c.) It ended the Civil Rights Movement due to there being too much violence 5.) Name a city that had the most history of racial violence? a.) Oklahoma City b.) New York City c.) Birmingham 6.) Name a Civil Rights movement that happened in Birmingham, Alabama. a.) Children’s March b.) John F. Kennedy Assassination c.) Medgar Evars assassination 7.) What happened to the marchers at Birmingham? a.) They were sprayed with fire hoses b.) They were removed from the march by the National Guard c.) They were able to demonstrate peacefully 8.) Name one thing the attacks on the Birmingham did? a.) It convinced J.F.K. that the Civil Rights movement was not going to be successful b.) It convinced the Civil Rights Activists the movement was not going to be successful c.) It convinced J.F.K. that the needed to pass a Civil Rights Act. 9.) What happened just a couple hours after Kennedy forced the University of Alabama to desegregate? a.) Medgar Evars, NAACP secretary was assassinated b.) J.F.K. was assassinated c.) Martin Luther King was assassinated 10.) Where was the “I Have a Dream” speech delivered? a.) Washington D.C. b.) Birmingham, Alabama c.) Selma, Alabama

12 Chapter 20 Section 2 Quiz con’t.
11.) Name a tragedy that happened just two weeks after the “I Have a Dream” speech. a.) Medgar Evars was shot b.) Martin Luther King was shot c.) Four Birmingham, Alabama girls were killed 12.) When was J.F.K. assassinated? a.) 1963 b.) 1968 c.) 1965 13.) Name the starting and ending location of the 50 mile march King orchestrated? a.) Washington, D.C. to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania b.) Birmingham, Alabama to Selma, Alabama c.) Selma, Alabama to Montgomery, Alabama 14.) What happened to these marchers? a.) They were beat and gassed by the police b.) They were celebrated by the police c.) There was very little interest in the march 15.) What year was the Voting right Act passed?

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