2Riding for FreedomFreedom Riders – African Americans and whites who attempted to ride across the south on segregated buses.After violence erupted in Aniston, AL the bus drivers refused to transport the freedom riders further.A group of SNCC volunteers picked up the ride in Nashville.Violence once again erupted in Birmingham, AL but riders eventually rode to Montgomery, AL.
3Riding for Freedom Protesters met riders in Montgomery w/ violence. Newspapers throughout the nation reported on the violence which was what the riders wanted.President Kennedy sent 400 U.S. marshals to protect the riders.
4Integrating Ole MissJames Meredith won a court case to enroll in the University of Mississippi.Mississippi governor refused to let Meredith register.President Kennedy sent escorts to Mississippi to register.Riots broke out resulting in 2 deaths.Marshals protected Meredith to classes and protected his parents.
5Heading to BirminghamViolence again occurred in Birmingham, known for strict segregation.Bombings, protests, economic boycotts, & negative media coverageKing is arrested and jailed
6Kennedy takes a StandKennedy had to send troops to enforce the integration of the University of Alabama.He demanded that Congress pass a civil rights bill.
7Dream of EqualityIn Aug. 1963, 250,000 people came to the capital in Washington D.C.Marched across D.C. and listened to speakers demand immediate equality.“I Have a Dream” speech
8Fighting for Voting Rights 2 weeks later, 4 black girls were killed when a bomb was thrown through a church window.2 more African Americans were killed in the aftermath of the bombing.2 months later, Kennedy was assassinated.President Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964.Prohibited discrimination b/c of race, religion, national origin, & gender.
9Fighting for Voting Rights Freedom Summer – whites focused on Mississippi to register as many black voters as possible.Civil rights groups recruited & trained in nonviolence college students to register voters.Racial beatings, murders, burning of businesses, homes, & churches continued throughout the summer.
10A new Political PartySNCC organized the Mississippi Freedom Democratic PartyFannie Lou Hamer became the voice of the party at the Democratic convention.
11Selma Campaign In 1965 the SNCC held a voting campaign in Selma, AL. After Jimmy Jackson was killed, King responded by announcing a 50 mile march from Selma to Montgomery.Violence broke out & television crews captured the violence.Demonstrators poured into Selma by the hundreds.The demonstrators set out to Montgomery again w/ federal protection.
12Voting Rights Act of 1965Summer of 1965 Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965.Eliminated literacy testsFederal officials could enroll voters that had been denied by local officials.Voter registration for African Americans tripled in the South.Some felt the act did not go far enough for African Americans.Violence continued in the North and South.
13Answer the followingHow did freedom riders expose Southern resistance to desegregation rulings?How did the violence against the freedom riders affect President Kennedy?How did civil rights organizers integrate Southern campuses and towns?Who was James Meredith and what did he do?How did television coverage of the Birmingham marchers affect legislation?Why did civil rights activists organize the March on Washington?What famous speech was given at the March?Did the March achieve its goals?What prevented millions of African Americans from voting in the South?How did civil rights workers try to win a voting rights act?What did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 guarantee?