4A Southern Government Southern capital became Richmond, Virginia President was Jefferson DavisConfederate States of America11 Confederate States4 border states- slave states that didn’t take a sideSouth called “Rebels”North called “Yankees”40% were younger than 21 years old
5The goal of the South was to be recognized as an independent nation At the beginning of the war, the North had many more advantages over the SouthThe goal of the South was to be recognized as an independent nationThe goal of the North was to bring the South back to the Union and preserve it.
7Anaconda Plan Three part strategy for the Union 1. Blockade all Southern ports2. Control MississippiRiver3. Capture Richmond
8The Generals Robert E. Lee- All Confederate forces “Stonewall” Jackson – Confederate under LeeMcClellan – 1st Union’s Army of the PotomacAmbrose Burnside -2nd UnionJoseph Hooker – 3rd UnionGeorge Meade- 4th UnionUlysses Grant – Union’s Army of the WestWilliam Sherman- Union under Grant
10Battle of Bull Run 1st major battle Fought in Manassas Virginia. July 1861Southern General “Stonewall” Jackson becomes heroHuge victory for the ConfederatesBegan the “rebel yell”McClellan gets replaced by BurnsideSection 2
12To prevent the South to trade, Lincoln ordered a naval blockade along all Southern ports South used blockade runnersMarch 1862-Merrimack(Confederate) v Monitor(Union) – two metal-covered ships that fought against each otherWar at Sea
26War in the West Battle of Shiloh North had early victories under Grant. Captured several forts on the Tennessee and Cumberland riversMain goal in the west was to gain control of the Mississippi river.Battle of Shiloh- Union victory fought in Tennessee Lasted 2 days with over 20,000 casualties.North then captured New Orleans on April 1862Confederacy can no longer use the upper Miss.War in the WestBattle of Shiloh
32Battle of Antietam Sharpsburg Maryland Confederates were on the offenseGeneral McClellan (North) found General Lee’s (South) plans, so the North had an upper handSingle bloodiest day of the warVictory for the UnionBattle of Antietam
34Emancipation Proclamation .On JanuaryMade slavery illegal in the United StatesNorth hoped that by taking a stand on slavery, European countries would stop all trade with the SouthEmancipation ProclamationA CALL FOR FREEDOMSection 3
37More than 2,000,000 Federal soldiers were twenty-one or under More than 1,000,000 were eighteen or under. About 800,000 were seventeen or under. About 200,000 were sixteen or under. About 100,000 were fifteen or under. Three hundred were thirteen or under-most of these fifers or drummers, but regularly enrolled, and sometimes fighters. Twenty-five were ten or under.A Boy’s WarSection 4
38Casualties of War Total Casualties – 700,00 Union – 360,000 Confederacy – 260,000The Wilderness, May 5-7,17,666 diedSpotsylvania, May :10,920diedCold Harbor, June 1-3,12,000Petersburg, June 15-30,16,569
39African Americans in the War In the South slaves helped the war effort by working the plantations, dug trenches, cooked for soldiers, cleaned up the remains etc..In the North the Navy was the first to enlist African Americans. In 1862 the Army open up. In all over 200,000 African American served in the Union army. 54th Massachusetts was most famous.Some escaped slaves served as spies due to their knowledge of the South
40Women in the Civil WarWith the men away women began to take over their jobs at home. Factory jobs, office jobs, taking over farm duties etc.Some women worked as spies and nurses. Clara Barton started the American Red Cross.Other women helped out at camps by cooking and caring for the wounded.
44Southern Victories McClellan is replaced by Burnside Battle of Fredericksburg Virginia – Dec (Confederate victory)Burnside is repalced by HookerBattle of Chancellorsville - May 1863 another Confederate victory (Jackson dies)South begins to see victory after victory in the Spring of 1863Southern VictoriesSection 5
46The Tide Turns BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG Battle of Gettysburg – Pennsylvania July days. Begins as a result of Confederates looking for supplies Union victory. Confederates retreat.turning point in the war.-South never won another big victoryOn December 1863 Lincoln gives the Gettysburg AddressBattle of Vicksburg – Miss. July Union victory.North now controls Miss River- cuts Confederacy in 1/2BATTLE OF GETTYSBURGThe Tide Turns
47Gettysburg AddressFour score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
49Final phases of the war Chattanooga Tenn.(Nov. 1863) Union victory Grant is now charge of all Union forcesThe new plan was for Grant to attack Lee’s army in Virginia and Sherman would crush the deep southFinal phases of the war
52StalemateBy mid 1864 Grant was stuck in Petersburg and Sherman was stuck outside Atlanta.Many Northern Peace Democrats pushed to end the war
53Sherman’s March to the Sea In September 1864 Sherman captured Atlanta and burned it to the ground.Sherman’s army than marched through the South and performed “total war”. They burned, destroyed, killed everything in their 50 mile path.Marched from Atlanta to Savannah GA. He then turned North.This left the South in ruins
56Surrender at Appomattox Throughout the winter of 1865 Grant continued his fighting outside of Richmond.On April 2, 1865 the Union took over RichmondOn April Lee surrendered to Grant at the Appomattox Court house in Virginia.This ended the Civil WarSurrender at Appomattox