Presentation on theme: "The Civil War 1861- 1865 Why a Civil War? After the election of 1860, Southerners were convinced that the Republican party and President Lincoln were."— Presentation transcript:
The Civil War 1861- 1865 Why a Civil War? After the election of 1860, Southerners were convinced that the Republican party and President Lincoln were going to strip away their freedoms (increase tariffs some more and end slavery). Southern States believed since they freely joined the Union, they could freely leave the Union (secede). Lincoln saw secession as unacceptable. These were the United States. If any state could leave then the United States could cease to exist.
South Carolina seceded first and the remaining lower southern states seceded one month later. These states quickly formed the Confederate States of America and named Jefferson Davis as their president.
On April 12, 1861, Confederate forces fired on a federal fort in Charleston, S. C. When Lincoln called for an increase in federal troops(a draft), the upper south (VA, NC, TN and AK) seceded and joined the Confederacy.. THE WAR BEGINS!!
The South: The Confederacy, Rebels, The Grey The North: The Union, Yankee, The Blue The Nation Divided
The Capital of the Confederacy! The original capital of the confederacy was Montgomery,Alabama. When Virginia joined the Confederacy, Richmond was made its capital. Why have the Confederate capital so close to the federal Capital? What is this a picture of in Richmond?
The first real battle of the Civil War took place in northern Virginia, at a place called Bull Run, in Manassas. Citizens knew when the battle would begin. Northern civilians, convinced this battle would end the war because the Union had all the advantages, came in carriages to watch the battle and have a midday picnic. They were horrified when the Confederate forces overran the poorly trained and led federal troops! Obviously, this battle made many understand that this would be a long war.
Northern War Aims: 1.Blockade southern ports. Why? 2.Cut the Confederacy in half by gaining control of the Miss. River. 3.Send troops into GA and the Carolinas and separate it from the Upper South. 4.Out man southern forces with a superior number of Union troops. 5.Hurt economy by freeing slaves. 6.Capture the capital of Richmond.
A different kind of war: modern machinery and old school tactics made the Civil War the costliest war (in terms of dead) ever.
George McClellan & the Peninsula Campaign General George McClellan was a meticulous planner. He wanted his men properly trained and well supplied before he would ever go after his opponent. Lincoln on the other hand wanted a quick victory since he had larger armies. They decided to attack Richmond by coming up the York and James Rivers.
Lee defeated McClellan during the Seven Days’ Battles. McClellan retreated back to the north by way of the James River.
Battle: Shiloh 4/6/62 Showed the nation how deadly the war would be. In two days 13,000 Union and 10,000 Confederate soldiers died.
Battle: Antietam 9/17/62 Maryland battle won by the North but again with a high price (another 23,000) dead. McClellan defeats Lee’s forces, however, believing that he doesn’t have the advantage, McClellan allows Lee’s troops to slip away back across the Potomac into Virginia. Nonetheless, the Union victory allows Lincoln to issue his Emancipation Proclamation which did nothing. It freed slaves only in the rebellious South and only when & if the Union won the war.
Carousel of Generals After Antietam, Lincoln had had enough of McClellan’s cautious nature. He replaced him with General Burnside who made a tactical error at Fredericksburg (Dec., 1862) costing the Union thousands of lives. Of the 17,000 casualties, over 12,00 were Union.
Lincoln then replaced Burnside with Joseph Hooker who was thoroughly defeated at Chancellorsville, VA, May 1863. The only positive for the Union was that Stonewall Jackson was shot and killed by one of his own men. Lincoln replaced Hooker General George Meade.
Siege of Vicksburg 5/22/63-7/4/63 (47 days): now the Union controlled the Mississippi River!
Gettysburg: 7/1/63-7/3/63 Union Army pushes Lee’s army back to VA Lee’s army of Northern Virginia “invades” the north. The defeat of southern forces in this small Pennsylvania town is the turning point of the war.
Confederate General Pickett leads his men in a charge. His unit defeat ends Gettysburg in favor of the Union.
Gettysburg: 51,000 dead.
Gettysburg Address, Nov. 19, 1863: Invoking the words of the Declaration of Independence, Lincoln went to Gettysburg to say a few words in honor of the men who had died there: “Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. “Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war.. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us— that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”
The Election of 1864 Lincoln was attacked from all sides while President. Many believed he overstepped his powers during the war (radical republicans) and they wanted immediate emancipation for the slaves. When Stephen Douglas died suddenly the democrats became split between the war democrats and the peace democrats. Republicans joined with the war democrats & Lincoln made Andrew Johnson (from Tenn) his running mate. The democrats nominated.... General George McClellan who ran on the promise of peace. Lincoln might have lost, but the taking of Atlanta secured his reelection.
Sherman And the March from Atlanta to the Sea Union General William T. Sherman wanted ruin their supplies. Having control of the western theater, Sherman marched his men to Atlanta, then to Columbia, SC and then on to Savannah burning everything in their path!
General Ulysses S. Grant went on the offensive in Virginia. He was defeated by Lee at the Battle of the Wilderness (again near Fredericksburg) and made his men march into a phalanx of fire at Cold Harbor. Grant lost thousands of men in minutes. Still he outfoxed Lee by making a move towards Richmond. When Lee went to protect Richmond, Grant headed to his real objective, Petersburg. The siege lasted for nine months and ended on April 2, 1865. Confederate forces pulled out of Petersburg and Richmond.
What city is, or should I say was, this?
After Richmond, Lee and his men went to Petersburg. Grant followed. The siege of Petersburg was won by Grant. Lee and his men escaped, but Lee know it was over. On April 9, 1865 Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House in Virginia. The war was over. Union: 360,000 dead and 275,000 wounded. Confederates: 258,000 dead & 100,000 wounded. The war was over, but had it really changed anything?