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East Asia During the Early Modern Era

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Presentation on theme: "East Asia During the Early Modern Era"— Presentation transcript:

1 East Asia During the Early Modern Era

2 The Dynasties by Time Period

3 3500 BCE to 500 BCE

4 China: BCE to 500 BCE The Xia ( BCE) First Dynasty with historical records. The Shang (1600 to 1046 BCE) Earliest written records take the form of oracle bones.

5 China: 500 BCE to 600 CE Period of Warring States (476-221 BCE)
Qin (221 BBCE to 206 BCE) – Legalism, Burning Books, Great Wall Han (202 BCE to 220 CE) – First dynasty to embrace Confucianism

6 China: 600 CE to 1450 CE Tang/Song ( ) – Gunpowder, compass, Neo-Confucianism Mongol/Yuan ( ) – Opened Trade; Pax Mongolica Ming ( ) – Mongol influences eradicated through policy

7 China: Ming ( ) – Mongol influences eradicated through policy. Qing ( ) – Emperor conquered Taiwan and moved Chinese influence into central Asia.

8 Political and Cultural Changes
Qing Dynasty restored integrity in China’s political structure after the lavish imperial days of the Ming. Women’s conditions worsened with Ming and Qing policies. China’s population grew dramatically as a result of American food crops. Importance of silver to economy increased. Maritime trade in the global community decreased with late Ming Dynasty’s policies.

9 Political and Cultural Changes
Return of Roman Catholic Christianity through missionaries By the end of the period, Christianity had nearly disappeared. Popular culture in the cities encouraged teahouses, wine shops, popular novels,etc., among urban residents.

10 Continuities Tightly centralized Confucian scholars Filial piety
Stagnation in Technological Developments

11 Causes and Effects of Japan and China’s Population Trends
China experienced a dramatic increase while Japan had only moderate increases. Both improved agriculture. China imported American food products. Japan had new crop strains, methods of irrigation, and the use of fertilizer. Both societies experienced infanticide; however, contraception, late marriage, and abortion contributed to more stagnation in population.

12 Compare relationship between merchants and government in Europe and China.
European monarchs and governments encouraged and supported merchants through the establishment of trading posts and colonies. Chinese authorities did not adopt policies to strengthen both merchants and the state by authorizing merchants to pursue their efforts in the global community.

13 What factors brought Christianity back to China after Mongol influence?
Matteo Ricci Mastered Chinese language and literature. He shared knowledge of math, astronomy, and calendar with Ming court. Matteo Ricci Jesuits showed similarities in philosophies of Jesus and Confucius. Jesuits held religious services in the Chinese language and allowed converts to continue veneration of ancestors.

14 Why didn’t Christianity survive the Early Modern Era in China?
Franciscans and Dominicans complained to the pope about Jesuits’ tolerance of ancestor worship and Chinese language services. The pope issued proclamations ordering missionaries in China to suppress ancestor veneration and conduct European-style services. The emperor Kangxi ordered an end to the preaching of Christianity in China.

15 What as the primary impact of Christianity in East Asia during this period?
It made European science and technology known in China. The Jesuits made China known in Europe. European rulers designed their own civil service systems based on Confucian civil service system. The rational morality of Confucianism appealed to Enlightenment philosophies. Jesuits stimulated European interest in east Asian societies.

16 Political and Cultural Changes in Japan
After a period of civil war (sengoku) the tent government (bakufu) unified Japan under Tokugawa rule. European interaction was interrupted with the Tokugawa government’s shogun edicts. The daimyo and the samurai lost their position in society due to Tokugawa rule. Japanese merchants gained wealth and influence in society. Villages moved from subsistence farming into production for the market. Dramatic increases in population ceased.

17 Political and Cultural Changes in Japan
Floating Worlds of Tokugawa urban culture reflected decline in urban society’s social responsibility and rigid rule. Kabuki and puppet theatre Christianity declined in Japan during this period after shoguns ordered a halt to Christian missions and commanded Japanese Christians to renounce their faith. Japan adopted European ideas from the Dutch, including the area of European medicine.

18 Continuities in Japan The shogun was the source of rule during most of this period in Japan. The emperor was a figurehead. In spite of Tokugawa rule, civil war and political instability continued. There was little increase in population. Native scholars continued traditional Japanese traditions (xenophobic)

19 Similarities Between Japan and China
Both had periods of unified rule. Both ousted Christianity. The Ming/Qing and the Tokugawa both had policies that discouraged a relationship with Europe. In both societies, the condition of women worsened. Confucianism and Buddhism flourished in both societies. Both societies developed urban cultures that emphasized entertainment over intellectual pursuits.

20 Differences Between Japan and China
China had a burst in population and Japan did not. Women’s conditions were worse in Japan. Merchants were shunned more in China’s society than in Japan’s. Scholar-bureaucrats were more significant in Chinese society.

21 What was traded in exchange for Chinese silk, porcelain, lacquerware, and tea?

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