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Gunpowder Empires & the Age of Exploration

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Presentation on theme: "Gunpowder Empires & the Age of Exploration"— Presentation transcript:

1 Gunpowder Empires & the Age of Exploration

2 Renaissance Europe Population decrease resulting from the plague actually gives peasants more bargaining power- feudalism begins to decline Italy: Many different city-states, often in conflict Humanism Art

3 Slavery is controlled by some kings (Benin) but control is lost in others (Kongo)
Shift in global balance of power

4 Global Effects of Maritime Exploration
Biological exchange- Populations decrease due to disease, grow with introduction of new crops Slavery Economic benefits and disadvantages for Africans, Amerindians, and SE Asians Increased wealth for Europe Lays groundwork for European colonization and global domination

5 Transformation of Europe
Protestant Reformation -1519 Differences include marital status, works v. faith, simple v. ornate rituals, languages, monasteries, priestly authority Thirty Years War, Peace of Westphalia Absolutism Lots of poverty after 1530’s American crops improve diet Healthier people = fewer disease-related deaths Urbanization and growth of industry in European cities Early days of mercantilism

6 Americas Spain takes S. America, France and Britain in N. America
Spain uses mit’a and encomienda systems to exploit the labor of the native people Silver floods the global market God, gold & glory -> Sugar, silver & slaves Religion is the primary agent of cultural transfer In N. America, less cultural transfer- fur, tobacco, fish

7 Ottoman Empire 1300-1922 CE 1453-Siege of Constantinople
Centralized authority- bureaucracy Tolerant of other religions Janissaries Very powerful army and navy Encouraged the immigration of Jews Economic and military downturn in the late 16th/17th centuries


9 Mughal Empire 1526-1761 Major destination for overseas traders
Babur & Akbar Major destination for overseas traders Cotton goods Manufactured products Spices Europe is very interested in the Islamic Empires (many missionaries and diplomats are sent to investigate), but not vice-versa Power shifts away from land based empires even more, and toward naval powers Defeated an army of 100,000 with an army of 12,000 Superior guns and mobility Frightened the elephants too! Wrote a history of india, womnderful gardens AKBAR- abolishes jizya- head tax- levied previously on Hindus Marries a rajput (northern hindu) Capital at fatehpur sikri No sati, let women come out of their houses on market days, improved calendar, took care of the poor, regulated consumption of alcohol, encouraged widow remarriage

10 Qing 1630s- famine and rebellion “Pure” Manchus
Very rapid population growth Agriculture became far more productive as new crops were introduced from the Americas Global trade exploded Extremely patriarchal family structure- filial piety

11 NEO-CONFUCIANISM The three teachings are one!

12 Japan Kept close control over the Daimyo
Tokugawa Shogunate Kept close control over the Daimyo Alternate year attendance policies Led to the impoverishment/restriction of nobility FROM CHINA: Confucian social hierarchy- filial piety and loyalty and obedience to elders/superiors Warriors turned into scholars, administrators Merchants at the bottom even though their activities stimulated the economy Education Buddhism

13 Interactions with Europe
Trade Introduce technology (guns) Tightly controlled relationship, however Japanese could not go abroad or they would be executed No large ships No import of foreign books Almost all Asian trade, SOME trade with the Dutch

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