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Slide 1 Copyright © 2005. Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 3 Cells and Tissue.

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1 Slide 1 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 3 Cells and Tissue

2 Slide 2 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Learning Objectives Identify and discuss the basic structure and function of the three major components of a cell. List and briefly discuss the functions of the primary cellular organelles. Compare the major passive and active transport processes that act to move substances through cell membranes.

3 Slide 3 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Learning Objectives (contd.) Compare and discuss DNA and RNA and their function in protein synthesis. Discuss the stages of mitosis and explain the importance of cellular reproduction.

4 Slide 4 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Learning Objectives (contd.) Explain how epithelial tissue is grouped according to shape and arrangement of cells. List and briefly discuss the major types of connective and muscle tissue. List the three structural components of a neuron.

5 Slide 5 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 3 Lesson 3.1

6 Slide 6 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Size and Shape Human cells vary considerably in size. All are microscopic. Cells differ notably in shape. Cytoplasm contains specialized organelles surrounded by a plasma membrane. Cytoplasm contains specialized organelles. Plasma membrane surrounds each cell. Organization of cytoplasmic substances is important for life. The small, circular body called the nucleus is inside the cell. Composition

7 Slide 7 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Composition General Characteristics of the cell

8 Slide 8 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Plasma membrane forms outer boundary of cell only 7 nm (3/10,000,000 of an inch) thick thin two-layered membrane of phospholipids containing proteins form the framework of the plasma membrane is selectively permeable Parts of the Cell Cytoplasm internal living material of cells organellessmall structures that make up most of the cytoplasm o Ribosomes: may attach to rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or lie free in cytoplasm.

9 Slide 9 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Parts of the Cell (contd.) Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network of connecting sacs and canals carries substances through cytoplasm Golgi apparatus group of flattened sacs stacked on one another near nucleus Mitochondria composed of inner and outer membranes each contains one DNA molecule

10 Slide 10 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Parts of the Cell (contd.) Lysosomes membranous-walled organelles contain digestive enzymes Centrioles paired organelles fine tubules that lie at right angles to each other near the nucleus Cilia fine hairlike extensions found on free or exposed surfaces of some cells Flagellum single projection extending from cell surfaces much larger than cilia

11 Slide 11 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Parts of the Cell (contd.) Nucleus controls every organelle in the cytoplasm, along with cell reproduction contains the genetic code component structures include nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, and chromatin granules

12 Slide 12 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Relationship of Cell Structure and Function Regulation of life processes. Survival of species through reproduction of the individual. Relationship of structure to function is apparent in number and type of organelles seen in different cells.

13 Slide 13 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Movement of Substances Through Cell Membranes Passive transport processes processes do not require added energy and result in movement down a concentration gradient types of passive transport include: diffusion o osmosis o dialysis filtration

14 Slide 14 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Movement of Substances Through Cell Membranes (contd.) Passive Transport Processes

15 Slide 15 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Movement of Substances Through Cell Membranes (contd.) Passive transport processes Diffusion Substances scatter themselves evenly throughout an available space. It is unnecessary to add energy to the system. Movement is from high to low concentration. Osmosis and dialysis are specialized examples of diffusion.

16 Slide 16 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Movement of Substances Through Cell Membranes (contd.) Passive transport processes Filtration Movement of water and solutes through a membrane because of a greater pushing force on one side of the membrane than on the other. This force is called hydrostatic pressure. Responsible for urine formation.

17 Slide 17 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Movement of Substances Through Cell Membranes (contd.) Active transport processes occurs only in living cells movement of substances is against/up the concentration gradient requires energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

18 Slide 18 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Movement of Substances Through Cell Membranes (contd.) Active Transport Processes

19 Slide 19 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Movement of Substances Through Cell Membranes (contd.) Active transport processes Ion pumps An ion pump is protein complex in cell membrane called a carrier. Ion pumps use energy from ATP to move substances across cell membranes against their concentration gradients Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis Both are active transport mechanisms because they require cell energy. Phagocytosis is a protective mechanism often used to destroy bacteria. Pinocytosis is used to incorporate fluids or dissolved substances into cells.

20 Slide 20 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 3 Lesson 3.2

21 Slide 21 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cell Reproduction Mitosis the process of cell reproduction, one cell divides to become two cells. tied closely to the production of proteins

22 Slide 22 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cell Reproduction (contd.) DNA Molecule and Genetic Information Chromosomes are composed largely of DNA. DNA shaped like a long, narrow spiral staircase. Each step in the DNA ladder consists of pair of bases. Only two combinations of bases will occur A-T or C-G. Called complementary base pairing.

23 Slide 23 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Genetic Code DNA Molecule and Genetic Information Genes dictate formation of enzymes and other proteins by ribosomes. Although the types of base pairs in all chromosomes are the same, the sequence varies. Each gene directs the synthesis of a specific protein. Genetic codethe storage of information in each gene

24 Slide 24 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Genetic Code (contd.) RNA Molecules and Protein Synthesis Ribonucleic acid (RNA) transfers genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. RNA is made up of: sugar: ribose phosphate nitrogen bases: cytosine, guanine, adenine, uracil

25 Slide 25 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Genetic Code (contd.) RNA Molecules and Protein Synthesis Transcription Double-stranded DNA separates to form messenger RNA (mRNA). Each strand of mRNA duplicates a particular gene (base-pair sequence) from a segment of DNA. mRNA molecules pass from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where they direct protein synthesis in ribosomes and ER.

26 Slide 26 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Genetic Code (contd.) Translation Involves synthesis of proteins in cytoplasm by ribosome Requires use of information contained in mRNA to direct the choice and sequencing of the building blocks called amino acids As amino acids are assembled into proper sequence, a protein strand forms.

27 Slide 27 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Genetic Code (contd.) Protein synthesis

28 Slide 28 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cell Division Reproduction of cell by division of the nucleus (mitosis) and the cytoplasm DNA Replication Process by which each half of a DNA molecule becomes a whole molecule identical to the original DNA molecule Happens before mitosis

29 Slide 29 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cell Division (contd.) Mitosis Process in cell division in which identical chromosomes (DNA molecules) to each new cell are formed when the original cell divides Enables cells to reproduce their own kind

30 Slide 30 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Stages of Mitosis Prophasefirst stage Chromatin granules become organized. Chromosomes (pairs of linked chromatids) appear. Chromatids are held together by beadlike structure called centromere. Centrioles move away from each other. Spindle fibers form between centrioles. Nuclear envelope disappears, freeing genetic material.

31 Slide 31 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Stages of Mitosis (contd.) Metaphasesecond stage Nuclear envelope and nucleolus have disappeared. Chromosomes align across center of cell. Spindle fibers attach themselves to each chromatid.

32 Slide 32 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Stages of Mitosis (contd.) Anaphasethird phase Centromeres break apart. Separated chromatids are now called chromosomes once again. Chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends of cell. Cleavage furrow develops at end of anaphase. Beginning to divide cell into two daughter cells

33 Slide 33 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Stages of Mitosis (contd.) Telophasefourth stage Cell division is completed. Nuclei appear in daughter cells. Nuclear envelope and nucleoli appear. Cytoplasm and organelles divide equally. Daughter cells become fully functional.

34 Slide 34 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 3 Lesson 3.3 Epithelial Tissue types

35 Slide 35 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Tissues Epithelial tissue Covers body and lines body cavities Cells packed closely together with little matrix Classified by shape and arrangement of cells Epithelial tissue types simple squamous epithelium single layer of very thin, irregularly shaped cells transport is function (such as absorption of oxygen into blood) located in alveoli of lungs, lining of blood, and lymphatic vessels stratified squamous epithelium several layers of closely packed cells protection is primary function

36 Slide 36 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Tissues (contd.) Epithelial tissue types Simple columnar epithelium Single layer of tall, narrow cells Contain mucus-producing goblet cells Stratified transitional epithelium Up to 10 layers of roughly cuboidal-shaped cells that distort to squamous shape when stretched Functions as protection Found in body areas subject to stress and that stretch, such as urinary bladder Pseudostratified epithelium Single layer of tall cells that wedge together to appear as if there are two or more layers Simple cuboidal epithelium Form tubules specialized for secretory activity Usually form clusters called glands

37 Slide 37 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Tissues (contd.) Classification of epithelial tissues

38 Slide 38 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Tissues (contd.) Connective tissue Most abundant tissue in body Most widely distributed tissue in body Multiple types, appearances, and functions Relatively few cells in intercellular matrix Types Areolarglue that holds organs together Adipose (fat)lipid storage is primary function Fibrousconsists of strong, white collagen fibers

39 Slide 39 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Tissues (contd.) Connective tissue types Bonematrix is hard and calcified o Forms structural building blocks called osteons o Function in support and protection, stores calcium Cartilagechondrocyte is cell type o Differs from bone because its matrix has the consistency of a firm plastic or gristle-like gel Blood and Hemopoietic o Bloodmatrix is fluid o Hemopoieticbloodlike connective tissue found in marrow cavities

40 Slide 40 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Tissues (contd.) Muscle tissue Types Skeletalalso called striated or voluntary o attaches to bones o control is voluntary o striations apparent when viewed under a microscope

41 Slide 41 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Tissues (contd.) Muscle tissue types Cardiacalso called striated involuntary o produces regular, involuntary contractions of cardiac muscle to produce heartbeat o has faint cross striations and thicker dark bands called intercalated disks Smoothalso called visceral o involuntary control o appears smooth; without cross striations o has only one nucleus per fiber o forms walls of blood vessels, hollow organs such as intestines and other tube-shaped structures

42 Slide 42 Copyright © Mosby Inc. All Rights Reserved. Tissues (contd.) Nervous tissue Provides rapid communication between body structures and control of body functions Example is spinal cord tissue Consists of two cell types: neuron and glia Glia (neuroglia)supportive and connecting cells Neuronsconducting cell


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