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End Show Slide 1 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Prentice Hall Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "End Show Slide 1 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Prentice Hall Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 End Show Slide 1 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Prentice Hall Biology

2 End Show Slide 2 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 10-2 Cell Division

3 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 3 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall In eukaryotes, cell division occurs in two major stages. The first stage, division of the cell nucleus, is called mitosis. The second stage, division of the cell cytoplasm, is called cytokinesis. Cell Division

4 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 4 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chromosomes Genetic information is passed from one generation to the next on chromosomes. Before cell division, each chromosome is duplicated, or copied.

5 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 5 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chromosomes Each chromosome consists of two identical sister chromatids. Each pair of chromatids is attached at an area called the centromere. Sister chromatids Centromere

6 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 6 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chromosomes When the cell divides, the chromatids separate. Each new cell gets one chromatid.

7 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 7 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Cell Cycle What are the main events of the cell cycle?

8 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 8 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Cell Cycle Cell Cycle The cell cycle is the series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide. Interphase is the period of growth that occurs between cell divisions.

9 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 9 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Cell Cycle During the cell cycle: a cell grows prepares for division divides to form two daughter cells, each of which begins the cycle again

10 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 10 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Cell Cycle The cell cycle consists of four phases: G 1 (First Gap Phase) S Phase G 2 (Second Gap Phase) M Phase

11 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 11 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Events of the Cell Cycle During G 1, the cell increases in size synthesizes new proteins and organelles

12 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 12 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Events of the Cell Cycle During the S phase, chromosomes are replicated DNA synthesis takes place Once a cell enters the S phase, it usually completes the rest of the cell cycle.

13 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 13 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Events of the Cell Cycle The G 2 Phase (Second Gap Phase) organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced Once G 2 is complete, the cell is ready to start the M phaseMitosis

14 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 14 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cell Cycle Events of the Cell Cycle

15 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 15 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitosis What are the four phases of mitosis?

16 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 16 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitosis Biologists divide the events of mitosis into four phases: Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

17 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 17 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitosis

18 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 18 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Section 10-2 Prophase Spindle forming Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Centromere Click to Continue Mitosis Prophase

19 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 19 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitosis Prophase Prophase is the first and longest phase of mitosis. The centrioles separate and take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus. Spindle forming Centromere Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

20 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 20 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitosis The centrioles lie in a region called the centrosome. The centrosome helps to organize the spindle, a fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes. Spindle forming Centromere Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

21 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 21 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitosis Chromatin condenses into chromosomes. The centrioles separate and a spindle begins to form. The nuclear envelope breaks down. Spindle forming Centromere Chromosomes (paired chromatids)

22 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 22 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Centriole Spindle Mitosis Click to Continue Metaphase

23 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 23 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitosis Metaphase The second phase of mitosis is metaphase. The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Microtubules connect the centromere of each chromosome to the poles of the spindle. Centriole Spindle

24 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 24 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Individual chromosomes Anaphase Mitosis Anaphase

25 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 25 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitosis Anaphase Anaphase is the third phase of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes. The chromosomes continue to move until they have separated into two groups. Individual chromosomes

26 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 26 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nuclear envelope reforming Telophase Mitosis Telophase

27 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 27 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitosis Telophase Telophase is the fourth and final phase of mitosis. Chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shape.

28 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 28 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitosis A new nuclear envelope forms around each cluster of chromosomes.

29 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 29 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cytokinesis

30 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 30 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cytokinesis During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm pinches in half. Each daughter cell has an identical set of duplicate chromosomes

31 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 31 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cytokinesis in Plants In plants, a structure known as the cell plate forms midway between the divided nuclei. Cell wall Cell plate

32 End Show 10-2 Cell Division Slide 32 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cytokinesis in Plants The cell plate gradually develops into a separating membrane. A cell wall then begins to appear in the cell plate.

33 End Show - or - Continue to: Click to Launch: Slide 33 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall (must have QuickTake software installed on the computer you are using for this presentation) - or

34 End Show Slide 34 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 10-2 The series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide is called a.the cell cycle. b.mitosis. c.interphase. d.cytokinesis.

35 End Show Slide 35 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 10-2 The phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell is a.prophase. b.metaphase. c.anaphase. d.telophase.

36 End Show Slide 36 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 10-2 Cytokinesis usually occurs a.at the same time as telophase. b.after telophase. c.during interphase. d.during anaphase

37 End Show Slide 37 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 10-2 DNA replication takes place during the a.S phase of the cell cycle. b.G 1 phase of the cell cycle. c.G 2 phase of the cell cycle. d.M phase of the cell cycle.

38 End Show Slide 38 of 38 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 10-2 During mitosis, sister chromatids separate from one another during a.telophase. b.interphase. c.anaphase. d.metaphase.

39 END OF SECTION


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