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PASS Objectives Content Standard 1.1 Cells are composed of a variety of structures such as the nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, ribosomes,

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Presentation on theme: "PASS Objectives Content Standard 1.1 Cells are composed of a variety of structures such as the nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, ribosomes,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 PASS Objectives Content Standard 1.1 Cells are composed of a variety of structures such as the nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, ribosomes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts.

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4 All living things are made of cells 1

5 Cells are the basic units of life 2

6 Cells come only from other cells 3

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13 All bacteria cells are about the same size

14 All animal cells are about the same size

15 All plant cells are about the same size

16 Larger animals must have MORE cells.

17 Cell Organelles

18 Organelles - 5 min

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24 Cell Parts - 16 min

25 Summary of Cell Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosome mitochondria vacuole lysosome plastid support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA) protein synthesis produce energy storage recycle contain pigment

26 Cell Wall Surrounds bacteria and plant cells, functions for support and protection.

27 There are large pores in the cell wall that allow substances to come in contact with the cell membrane. Cell Wall

28 Cell Membrane A complex barrier of lipid (fat) molecules separating the inside of the cell from its external environment.

29 Cell Membrane There are two layers of lipid molecules - one forming the inside surface and one forming the outside surface.

30 Cell Membrane Carbohydrate and protein molecules are part of the membrane and extend through it.

31 The membrane is selectively permeable, allowing substances like water and oxygen to move freely through it, while keeping other substances from doing so. Cell Membrane

32 Water moves through the membrane by the process of osmosis. Cell Membrane

33 During osmosis, particles move easily from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration by molecular motion only. Cell Membrane

34 A cell CAN push molecules against this "concentration gradient", but it requires the cell to use energy to do so. Cell Membrane

35 Cytoplasm A thick, aqueous solution of salts surrounding the organelles inside the cell membrane.

36 Cytoplasm Nutrients and minerals spread through the cytoplasm to all parts of the cell by cytoplasmic streaming...

37 Cytoplasm meaning the cytoplasm is constantly slowly moving inside the cell.

38 Nucleus The nucleus directs cell activities.

39 Nucleus The nucleus contains the DNA of a cell in the form of chromatin, long threads of DNA.

40 Nucleus Chromosomes form ONLY during cell division.

41 Ribosome Sites of protein synthesis in almost all cells.

42 These small, spherical structures are the most numerous organelles in most cells. Ribosome

43 Endoplasmic Reticulum A system of folded membrane sacs and tunnels in the cytoplasm.

44 Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough "ER" is covered with ribosomes. Smooth "ER" has few or no ribosomes.

45 Mitochondria Respiration centers of a cell.

46 Mitochondria Large organelles scattered through the cell, they are most numerous in cells that use a LOT of energy like liver and muscle cells.

47 A stack of membranes that act to "package" substances for export from the cell. Golgi Apparatus

48 Once enclosed in a vesicle, the product is sent through the cell membrane. Golgi Apparatus

49 Lysosome Lysosomes are the cell's recycling centers.

50 Lysosome Enzymes inside lysosomes break down molecules into smaller materials that are then used to build new complex molecules.

51 Vacuole Vacuoles are storage areas within a cell.

52 Vacuole Although most cells have vacuoles, plant cells have LARGE vacuoles in which they store water.

53 Plastid Plastids contain pigments, chemicals that produce colors.

54 Plastid The cells in your lower epidermis have melanoplasts, containing the brown pigment called melanin...

55 Plastid the more melanoplasts, the darker your skin.

56 Plastid Chloroplasts in plant cells contain the green pigment chlorophyll, which makes photosynthesis possible.

57 Summary of Organelles

58 cell wall

59 Summary of Organelles cell wall support & protect cell

60 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane support & protect cell

61 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane support & protect cell surround the cell

62 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm support & protect cell surround the cell

63 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell

64 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell

65 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA)

66 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosome support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA)

67 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosome support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA) protein synthesis

68 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosome mitochondria support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA) protein synthesis

69 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosome mitochondria support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA) protein synthesis produce energy

70 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosome mitochondria vacuole support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA) protein synthesis produce energy

71 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosome mitochondria vacuole support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA) protein synthesis produce energy storage

72 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosome mitochondria vacuole lysosome support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA) protein synthesis produce energy storage

73 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosome mitochondria vacuole lysosome support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA) protein synthesis produce energy storage recycle

74 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosome mitochondria vacuole lysosome plastid support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA) protein synthesis produce energy storage recycle

75 Summary of Organelles cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosome mitochondria vacuole lysosome plastid support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA) protein synthesis produce energy storage recycle contain pigment

76 cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus ribosome mitochondria vacuole lysosome plastid support & protect cell surround the cell fluid inside cell controls the cell (DNA) protein synthesis produce energy storage recycle contain pigment Summary of Organelles

77 End - Cell Organelles

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79 Cell Cycle - 16 min

80 The Cycle of Cell Division

81 Gap 1 - The formation of two daughter cells from a parent cell in cytokinesis is an energy-consuming process.

82 Gap 1 - The time needed by the cells to replenish their energy causes this "gap".

83 G1 - The longest phase of the cell cycle.

84 G1 - It is during this phase that specialized cells in higher organisms perform their major function.

85 S - Synthesis means "to make".

86 S - the cell's original DNA is duplicated in the process of replication.

87 Gap 2 - The replication of DNA is another energy-consuming process for the cell.

88 G2 - The time taken by a cell to build up its energy reserves produces this second gap.

89 M - Mitosis is the process by which DNA is divided into two identical sets before the cell divides.

90 Mitosis has four major phases:

91 Chromatin condenses into chromosomes. 1. Prophase

92 Paired chromosomes move to center of the cell. 2. Metaphase

93 Homologous chromatids (half of a pair of chromosomes) move to opposite sides of the cell. 3. Anaphase

94 Chromosomes disappear and a nuclear membrane forms around the chromatin Telophase

95 Daughter cells form by cytokinesis. 4. Telophase

96 Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm of a parent cell.

97 In animal cells, the cell pinches together, roughly in the center.

98 In plant cells, a new cell wall begins to form between the two daughter cells.

99 Cytokinesis marks the end of the M phase.

100 The cycle starts over.

101 Cells will be found in all phases of the cell cycle in any fast growing tissue.

102 Most human body cells can only divide about 50 times before wearing out.

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105 Meiosis is like Mitosis, only different...

106 Meiosis - 3 min

107 Mitosis Meiosis 1 DNA duplication, 1 cell division 1 DNA duplication, 2 cell divisions

108 Normal human body cells, somatic cells, have 46 chromosomes, in 23 pairs.

109 A cell with a full set of chromosomes is said to have a 2n number of chromosomes.

110 Human sex cells, gametes, have 23 unpaired chromosomes.

111 Gametes are said to have an n number of chromosomes.

112 Fertilization - the joining of gametes.

113 Fertilization restores the "2n" chromosome number.

114 This process defines sexual reproduction.

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117 Comparison of Cell Size If the nucleus of a cell were the size of a penny, the cell would be the size of a football field.


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