Presentation on theme: "Altered States of Consciousness Chapter 7 Psychology."— Presentation transcript:
Altered States of Consciousness Chapter 7 Psychology
Sleep & Dreams Sleep – an essential Sleep – an essential state of consciousness - involves stages and periods of dreaming. Consciousness is a state of awareness. There are different levels/stages of consciousness.
Why do we sleep? We don’t really know. Sleep involves being unresponsive to your surroundings with little physical movement. Theories on Sleep It’s time to recover from exhaustion and stress It’s a type of primitive hibernation It’s a conservation of energy It’s an adaptation to our environment It’s a time to cleanse our minds of useless information.
Stages of Sleep Stage 1 – the lightest level Pulse slows and muscles relax Breathing becomes uneven and brain waves are irregular Feeling of “just drifting” Stage 2 Eyes roll slowly from side to side Stage 3 Large amplitude delta waves sweep your brain every second or so
Stage 4 – the deepest sleep of all Most difficult time to wake someone up No memory of Talking out loud sleepwalking bedwetting Eyes begin to move rapidly REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Pulse and breathing become irregular Some minor twitching may occur Lasts for minutes Sleep retraces stages back to 1, and then goes through the stages to 4 again. This happens 5 times each night.
How much sleep? Newborns need about 16 hours a day Sixteen year olds – hours a night??? Graduate students – about 8 hours a night Circadian Rhythm Biological Clock that regulates physiological responses within a time period of hours This does not control sleep cycles, environmental and 24 hour day controls the cycles
Sleep disorders Insomnia - failure to get enough sleep at night to feel rested the next day Sleep Apnea - a person has trouble breathing while sleeping – may happen while snoring. Narcolepsy – sudden falling asleep or feeling sleepy during the day Night Terrors – occurs during Stage 4, involves screaming, panic confusion Sleep walking – walking or carrying out behaviors while asleep
Dreams Everyone dreams, not everyone recalls their dreams First dreams of the night are vague thoughts from the day Dreams get longer as the night goes on Last dream is usually the longest and is the one we remember
Content of Dreams We recall and discuss the more coherent, sexier, and more “Interesting” dreams Dreams usually occur in commonplace settings Usually wake up in the middle of nightmares Interpretation of dreams Many cultures believe dreams have interpretive meanings Some think they are predictions for the future Some believe dreams are a way of cleaning out our memories Francis Crick
Daydreams Low level of awareness Do it at times when we don’t have to pay a lot of attention Prepares us for the events of the future Generates thought processes
Hypnosis, Biofeedback, & Meditation Hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation are altered states of consciousness that can occur when we are awake What is hypnosis? Hypnosis is a form of altered consciousness in which people became highly suggestible to changes in behavior and thought Participants are NOT put to sleep People are able to focus on one tiny aspect of life and ignore all other input Mutual trust is vital for hypnosis to succeed
Theories of hypnosis Theodore Barber - hypnosis is NOT a special state of consciousness, but the result of suggestibility Ernest Hilgard - Neodisassociation Theory – consciousness becomes separated during hypnosis. Use of hypnosis Posthypnotic Suggestion Memories can be erased after hypnosis This has also been successful in treating people who want to stop eating or smoking.
Biofeedback The process of learning to control bodily states with the help of machines monitoring the states to be controlled Biofeedback Uses heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and gland activity By knowing how their body reacts to stressful situations, people can teach their bodies how to deal with, or learn to relax differently to avoid the stress
Meditation The focusing of attention to clear one’s mind and produce relaxation. Transcendental Meditation – repeating a mantra (saying) Breath Meditation - breathing and focus to block out the environment around us to find peace
Drugs & Consciousness Psychoactive drugs interact with the central nervous system to alter consciousness Psychoactive Drugs - chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered consciousness Depressants Tranquilizers Opiates Stimulants
How drugs work Carried by the blood to target tissues in the body Chemicals are absorbed into the blood Drug molecules act like neurotransmitters Hook onto the ends of nerve cells Send out their own messages Alcohol tells nerve cells not to fire LSD increases firing all over the place and causes nerve confusion and hallucinations
Marijuana Studies show that it is more harmful to the lungs than cigarette smoke Holding the smoke in for seconds adds to the drug’s potential for hindering lung function Disrupts memory function Makes it hard to carry out mental and physical tasks Research also showed that adults using marijuana scored lower than equal-IQ users on a twelfth-grade academic achievement test (1993)
Hallucinogens Drugs that produce hallucinations LSD – a potent psychedelic drug that produces distortions of perception and thought Hallucinations Distortions of time Impairs thinking Panic reactions are the most common Flashbacks years later may also occur
Opiates A.k.a. narcotics Opium Morphine Heroine Cause Pain reductions Euphoria Constipation VERY ADDICTIVE Overdose can easily lead to death.
Alcohol The most used and abused mind-altering substance in the U.S. Appears to be a stimulant, but is actually a depressant Body chemistry and size/weight often control reactions to alcohol use Can be highly addictive!
Drug Abuse and Treatment Abuse involves excessive use and addiction Treatment 1. the drug abuser must admit that he or she has a problem (big first step) 2. The drug abuser must enter a treatment program and/or get therapy (not easy) 3. The drug abuser must remain drug free (difficult if the environment lends itself to the addiction)