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Chapter 7 Altered States of Consciousness. Section 1 Objective  Sleep and Dreams  Discuss the four stages of sleep and the period of dreaming.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Altered States of Consciousness. Section 1 Objective  Sleep and Dreams  Discuss the four stages of sleep and the period of dreaming."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Altered States of Consciousness

2 Section 1 Objective  Sleep and Dreams  Discuss the four stages of sleep and the period of dreaming.


4 Define Consciousness: state of awareness, including a persons feeling, sensations, ideas, and perceptions. REM sleep: sleep stage with rapid eye movement, high brain act, deep muscle relaxation, and dreaming. Circadian Rhythm: rhythm of act and impact lasting about 1 day. Insomnia: failure to get enough sleep at night in order to feel rested during the day. Sleep apnea: sleep disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while asleep. Narcolepsy: uncontrolled falling asleep or feelings of sleep during the day. Nightmares: unpleasant dreams. Night Terrors: sleep disruption that occur during stage 4; involve screaming, panic, or confusion. Sleep Walking: walking or carrying out behaviors while asleep.

5 Complete a chart on Freud’s Levels of Consciousness Conscious - Perception - Thoughts Pre- Conscious - Memories - Stored Knowledge Unconsciou s --Selfish needs -- Irrational Wishes -- Immoral Urges -- Shameful Experiences -- Fears -- Violent Motives -- Unacceptable Desires

6 Describe the following during the levels of sleep.  Stage 1  Pulse slows, Muscles relax, Breathing & brain activity become uneven. Can last up to 10 minutes. Production of Theta waves, brain waves shift from low amp & high frequency to high amp and low frequency.  Stage 2  Eyes move side to side, and can last up to 30 minutes  Stage 3  Large amp Delta waves sweep brain every second or so

7 Describe the following during the levels of sleep.  Stage 4  Deepest sleep of all and is hard to awaken from. Large regular Delta waves are common. When awakened, one is disoriented. Sleepwalking, talking, bed wetting with no memory is common. This stage must be reached for mental and physical health.  REM Sleep  Eyes move rapidly, adrenal and sex hormones increase. Body becomes paralyzed, while face and fingers twitch.

8 The amount of sleep on needs decreases as one gets older, while the percentage of time in REM sleep increases True

9 What causes jet lag? Circadian cycle not instinct with external clock.

10 Give causes for the following disorders:  Insomnia  mental stress, anxiety, over use of drugs & alcohol  Sleep Apnea  Enlarged tonsils, throat & ear infections, obesity  Narcolepsy  Lack of sleep causing them to have problems at work, leisure, & relationship  Nightmares & Terrors  Disturbing thoughts, unconscious ides, inability to resolve issues (trauma)  Sleepwalking and talking  Stress, fatigue, use of sedatives, and heredity. Contrary to popular belief, it is ok to wake them.

11 When would you have your most vivid and longest dreams? During your last REM cycle

12 T/F Dreams are usually pleasant and soothing. False, dreams are usually about fear, anxiety, and sadness

13 From your own ideas & thoughts: Explain the purpose of dreams.  Allow us to resolve problems from the day  Do some mental housecleaning: get rid of non-needed memories

14 In dealing with dreams, what do the following mean Manifest Content  Refers to the storyline, images and perceptual aspects Latent Content  Meanings (the hidden) that come from unconscious wishes

15 Section 1 Recap- Sleep and Dreams  Main Idea: Sleep—an essential state of consciousness —involves stages and periods of dreaming.  ■Some researchers believe that sleep is restorative. Others believe sleep is a type of hibernation, necessary to conserve energy. Still others believe sleep clears the mind of useless information.  ■ There are several stages of sleep—from Stage I, the lightest level of sleep, to Stage IV, the deepest level of sleep. REM sleep is an active type of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement.  ■ Sometimes people have problems falling asleep or during sleep. Sleep disorders include insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, nightmares, night terrors, and sleepwalking.  ■ The mental activity that takes place during sleep is called dreaming.

16 Section 2- Objective  Hypnosis, Biofeedback, and Meditation  Understand that hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation are altered states of consciousness that can occur while we are awake.


18 Define  Hypnosis  Posthypnotic  Biofeedback  Meditation

19 How does hypnosis work?  Put into an altered state of consciousness in which they become highly suggestible.  Become responsive or receptive to certain stimuli  Focus on one tiny aspect of reality  Done by having one relax, discard distractions

20 What are some uses of hypnosis?  Block, Suppress, or Enhance memory  Reduce Pain  Help clients reveal problem or gain insight into life

21 How is Hypnosis used by athletes? Relaxation/Visualization/ Way to achieve personal best

22 What is the purpose of biofeedback?  To teach, with the use of machines, how different thoughts and/or emotions effect their physiological behavior & how to alter those effects

23 What are the 3 approaches to meditation? - Transcendental  repeating a phrase (Sanskrit) - Mindfulness  presents of mind from toes  head - Breath  concentrating on breathing

24 Section 2 – Hypnosis, Biofeedback, and Meditation  Main Idea: Hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation are altered states of consciousness that can occur when we  ■ Hypnosis is a form of altered consciousness in which people become highly suggestible to changes in behavior and thought.  ■ Biofeedback has been used to teach people to control a wide variety of physiological responses.  ■ Studies have suggested that the regular practice of meditation is physically relaxing and can also lead to changes in behavior. Others argue that meditation is indistinguishable from regularly scheduled relaxation.

25 Section 3 - Objectives  Drugs and Consciousness  Describe psychoactive drugs and how they interact with the central nervous system to alter consciousness.

26 Define the following vocab words  Psychoactive Drugs  Marijuana  Hallucinations  Hallucinogens  LSD

27 Give 3 facts of marijuana uses & effects - Sensory experiences augmented – music sounds fuller, colors brighter tastes stronger - -Feelings are enhanced: both positive & negative - -Can slow mental processes, cause lethargy, and be psychologically addictive

28 Describe some effects of LSD Hallucinations/ Familiar objects become unfamiliar/ Senses become intermingled

29 What are the different types of Opiates? Opium/ Morphine/ Heroin

30 What are some effects of alcohol use?  Immediate effect  loosening of inhibitions  Acting without social restraint or self control  Slurred speech, blurred vision, impaired judgment, memory loss, and a condition called “Beer Goggles”  Dependent on amount, frequency of use, and body weight, composition

31 What is the most commonly used psychoactive drug? Caffeine

32 What are some reasons that one abuses drugs?  Avoid boredom  Fit in with peers  Gain self confidence  Forget problems  Relax  Feel good

33 What are the usual steps of drug abuse treatment?  1. Admission of problem  2. Enter treatment or therapy  3. Must remain drug free

34 Section 3 Recap – Drugs and Consciousness  Main Idea: Psycho- active drugs interact with the central nervous system to alter consciousness.  ■ The effects of marijuana, a psychoactive drug, vary from person to person.  ■ Hallucinogens, whose main effect is to produce hallucinations, have been used for their effects on consciousness since earliest human history.  ■ LSD, a synthetic substance, is the most potent and most extensively studied hallucinogen.  ■ Alcohol is a depressant that serves to inhibit the brain’s normal functions.  ■ Drug abusers are people who regularly use illegal drugs or excessively use legal drugs.

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