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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 5 States of Consciousness This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN:
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 How is Consciousness Related to Other Mental Processes? Consciousness can take many forms, while other mental processes occur simultaneously outside our awareness
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Consciousness Does For Us Restricts our attention Combines sensation with learning and memory Allows us to create a mental model of the world that we can manipulate
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Levels of Consciousness Conscious Preconscious Unconscious Nonconscious
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Levels of Consciousness Conscious – Brain process of which we are aware Nonconscious – Brain process that does not involve conscious processing (e.g. heart rate, breathing, control of internal organs)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Unconscious – Many levels of processing that occur without awareness Levels of Consciousness Preconscious – Information that is not currently in consciousness, but can be brought into consciousness if attention is called to it
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness? Consciousness changes in cycles that correspond to our biological rhythms and the patterns of stimulation in our environment
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness? Daydreaming – A common variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies and away from the immediate situation
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sleep and Dreaming Circadian rhythms – Psychological patterns that repeat approximately every 24 hours The sleep cycle involves: REM sleep Non-REM (NREM) sleep REM-sleep deprivation leads to REM rebound
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Sleep Cycle
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Function of Sleep Possible functions of sleep include: To conserve energy To restore the body (neurotransmitters, neuron sensitivity) To build neural nets and flush out useless information from the brain
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Need for Sleep Over the years, the need for REM sleep decreases considerably, while the need for NREM sleep diminishes less sharply
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sleep Debt vs. The Circadian Clock Sleep debt – Deficiency caused by not getting the amount of sleep that one requires for optimal functioning
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Why We Dream: A Cross-Cultural Perspective Folk theories Scientific approach Dreams as meaningful events Dreams as random brain activity
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Dreams as Meaningful Events Freud believed dreams served the following two functions: To guard sleep To serve as sources of wish fulfillment Dream content Varies by culture, gender, and age Frequently connects with recent experience May help us form memories
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Dreams as Random Brain Activity Activation-synthesis theory – Theory that dreams begin with random electrical activation coming from brain stem; dreams are brains attempt to make sense of this random activity
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sleep Disorders Insomnia – Involves insufficient sleep, the inability to fall asleep quickly, frequent arousals, or early awakenings Sleep apnea – Respiratory disorder in which person intermittently stops breathing while asleep
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Cataplexy – Sudden loss of muscle control that occurs before narcoleptic sleep attack; waking form of sleep paralysis Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy – Involves sudden REM sleep attacks accompanied by cataplexy
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sleep Disorders Night terrors – The screaming of a child in deep sleep, who, once awakened, has no memory of what mental events might have caused the fear
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take? An altered state of consciousness occurs when some aspect of normal consciousness is modified by mental, behavioral, or chemical means
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take? Hypnosis Meditation Psychoactive drug states
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Hypnosis Hypnosis – Induced state of altered awareness, characterized by heightened suggestibility and deep relaxation Hypnotizability – Degree to which an individual is responsive to hypnotic suggestions
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Hypnosis As an Altered State Experts disagree about whether hypnosis involves A distinct state of consciousness Heightened motivation Social processes such as role playing A dissociate state (Hilgards hidden observer view)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Practical Uses for Hypnosis Hypnosis can have practical uses for Researchers Psychological treatment Medical and dental treatment Hypnotic analgesia – Diminished sensitivity to pain while under hypnosis
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Meditation Meditation – Form of consciousness change induced by focusing on a repetitive behavior, assuming certain body positions and minimizing external stimulation
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Hallucinogens StimulantsDepressants Opiates Psychoactive Drug States Psychoactive drugs – Chemicals that affect mental processes and behavior by their effects on the nervous system
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Alter perceptions of the external environment and inner awareness (also called psychedelics) Mescaline LSD PCP Cannabis Hallucinogens
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Highly addictive; produce a sense of well-being and have strong pain- relieving properties Morphine Codeine Heroin Methadone Opiates
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Slow down mental and physical activity by inhibiting transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system Barbiturates Benzodiazepines (e.g. Valium) Alcohol Depressants
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Arouse the central nervous system, speeding up mental and physical responses Cocaine Amphetamines Methamphetamine MDMA (ecstasy) Caffeine Nicotine Stimulants
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 End of Chapter 5
States of Consciousness Chapter 7. States of Consciousness Consciousness and Information Processing Sleep and Dreams Biological Rhythms The Rhythm of.
States of Consciousness Levels of Consciousness Levels of Consciousness We know that various levels exists beyond the conscious level. Mere-exposure.
Consciousness: Focus on Awareness. Consciousness Our awareness of our own existence, sensations, and cognitions / Stream of consciousness / What function.
States of Consciousness. Levels of Consciousness We know that various levels exists beyond the conscious level. Mere-exposure effect Priming Blind sight.
1 States of Consciousness: Unit 5 – AP Psychology.
Chapter 7 Altered States of Consciousness. Section 1 - Sleep and Dreams We spend 1/3 of our lives sleeping Sleep is a state of altered consciousness characterized.
States of Consciousness Ch. 5 AP Psychology Alice F. Short Hilliard Davidson High School.
Ch 6 Consciousness. I. Defining Consciousness - the organism ’ s awareness of, or possibility of knowing what is happening inside or outside itself.
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 6 Chapter 6: States of Consciousness.
Consciousness and Sleep. Consciousness As: Sensory Awareness Selective Aspect of Attention Direct Inner Awareness Personal Unity Waking state.
Ch. 4: States of Consciousness. Consciousness Waking Consciousness Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that occur when we are awake and alert Altered.
Body rhythms and mental states 5. Overview Biological rhythms The rhythms of sleep Exploring the dream world The riddle of hypnosis Consciousness-altering.
PSYCHOLOGY: CONSCIOUSNESS Subconscious. Consciousness is the awareness of or the possibility of knowing what is happening inside or outside the organism.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 3 Biopsychology and the Foundations of Neuroscience This multimedia product and its contents are protected under.
Chapter 5 Variations in Consciousness. Table of Contents Consciousness: Personal Awareness Awareness of Internal and External Stimuli –Levels of awareness.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2007 Chapter 4 Sensation & Perception This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.
Psychology 5.2. * Dreams are repressed desires * Provide access to the unconscious * Use symbols to represent something other than we would normally think.
Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Are You.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 PowerPoint Presentations to Accompany AP ed. Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Ann L. Weber Craig W. Gruber Prepared.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 8 Emotion and Motivation This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 6 Learning This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.
Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 7 States of Consciousness James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.
States of Consciousness 2-4%. And then suddenly, I saw this bright light at the end of the tunnel.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 10 Personality This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.
Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 33 Nervous System Section 1: Structure of the Nervous System Section 2: Organization of the Nervous System.
Controlled Drugs & Illegal Drug Use A controlled drug is a drug whose possession, manufacture, distribution, and sale are controlled by law. Controlled.
SLEEP SLEEP DISORDERS DREAMSHYPNOSISDRUGS $100 $300 $200 $400 $500 $
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