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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 5 States of Consciousness This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-131-73180-7
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 How is Consciousness Related to Other Mental Processes? Consciousness can take many forms, while other mental processes occur simultaneously outside our awareness
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Consciousness Does For Us Restricts our attention Combines sensation with learning and memory Allows us to create a mental model of the world that we can manipulate
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Levels of Consciousness Conscious Preconscious Unconscious Nonconscious
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Levels of Consciousness Conscious – Brain process of which we are aware Nonconscious – Brain process that does not involve conscious processing (e.g. heart rate, breathing, control of internal organs)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Unconscious – Many levels of processing that occur without awareness Levels of Consciousness Preconscious – Information that is not currently in consciousness, but can be brought into consciousness if attention is called to it
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness? Consciousness changes in cycles that correspond to our biological rhythms and the patterns of stimulation in our environment
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness? Daydreaming – A common variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies and away from the immediate situation
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sleep and Dreaming Circadian rhythms – Psychological patterns that repeat approximately every 24 hours The sleep cycle involves: REM sleep Non-REM (NREM) sleep REM-sleep deprivation leads to REM rebound
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Sleep Cycle
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Function of Sleep Possible functions of sleep include: To conserve energy To restore the body (neurotransmitters, neuron sensitivity) To build neural nets and flush out useless information from the brain
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Need for Sleep Over the years, the need for REM sleep decreases considerably, while the need for NREM sleep diminishes less sharply
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sleep Debt vs. The Circadian Clock Sleep debt – Deficiency caused by not getting the amount of sleep that one requires for optimal functioning
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Why We Dream: A Cross-Cultural Perspective Folk theories Scientific approach Dreams as meaningful events Dreams as random brain activity
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Dreams as Meaningful Events Freud believed dreams served the following two functions: To guard sleep To serve as sources of wish fulfillment Dream content Varies by culture, gender, and age Frequently connects with recent experience May help us form memories
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Dreams as Random Brain Activity Activation-synthesis theory – Theory that dreams begin with random electrical activation coming from brain stem; dreams are brains attempt to make sense of this random activity
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sleep Disorders Insomnia – Involves insufficient sleep, the inability to fall asleep quickly, frequent arousals, or early awakenings Sleep apnea – Respiratory disorder in which person intermittently stops breathing while asleep
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Cataplexy – Sudden loss of muscle control that occurs before narcoleptic sleep attack; waking form of sleep paralysis Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy – Involves sudden REM sleep attacks accompanied by cataplexy
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sleep Disorders Night terrors – The screaming of a child in deep sleep, who, once awakened, has no memory of what mental events might have caused the fear
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take? An altered state of consciousness occurs when some aspect of normal consciousness is modified by mental, behavioral, or chemical means
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take? Hypnosis Meditation Psychoactive drug states
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Hypnosis Hypnosis – Induced state of altered awareness, characterized by heightened suggestibility and deep relaxation Hypnotizability – Degree to which an individual is responsive to hypnotic suggestions
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Hypnosis As an Altered State Experts disagree about whether hypnosis involves A distinct state of consciousness Heightened motivation Social processes such as role playing A dissociate state (Hilgards hidden observer view)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Practical Uses for Hypnosis Hypnosis can have practical uses for Researchers Psychological treatment Medical and dental treatment Hypnotic analgesia – Diminished sensitivity to pain while under hypnosis
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Meditation Meditation – Form of consciousness change induced by focusing on a repetitive behavior, assuming certain body positions and minimizing external stimulation
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Hallucinogens StimulantsDepressants Opiates Psychoactive Drug States Psychoactive drugs – Chemicals that affect mental processes and behavior by their effects on the nervous system
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Alter perceptions of the external environment and inner awareness (also called psychedelics) Mescaline LSD PCP Cannabis Hallucinogens
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Highly addictive; produce a sense of well-being and have strong pain- relieving properties Morphine Codeine Heroin Methadone Opiates
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Slow down mental and physical activity by inhibiting transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system Barbiturates Benzodiazepines (e.g. Valium) Alcohol Depressants
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Arouse the central nervous system, speeding up mental and physical responses Cocaine Amphetamines Methamphetamine MDMA (ecstasy) Caffeine Nicotine Stimulants
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 End of Chapter 5
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