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States of ConsciousnessChapter 5 States of Consciousness This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN: Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
How is Consciousness Related to Other Mental Processes?Consciousness can take many forms, while other mental processes occur simultaneously outside our awareness Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
What Consciousness Does For UsRestricts our attention Combines sensation with learning and memory Allows us to create a mental model of the world that we can manipulate Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Levels of ConsciousnessPreconscious Nonconscious Nonconscious Unconscious Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Levels of ConsciousnessConscious – Brain process of which we are aware Nonconscious – Brain process that does not involve conscious processing (e.g. heart rate, breathing, control of internal organs) Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Levels of ConsciousnessPreconscious – Information that is not currently in consciousness, but can be brought into consciousness if attention is called to it Unconscious – Many levels of processing that occur without awareness Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness?Consciousness changes in cycles that correspond to our biological rhythms and the patterns of stimulation in our environment Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness?Daydreaming – A common variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies and away from the immediate situation Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Sleep and Dreaming Circadian rhythms – Psychological patterns that repeat approximately every 24 hours The sleep cycle involves: REM sleep Non-REM (NREM) sleep REM-sleep deprivation leads to REM rebound Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007The Sleep Cycle Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007The Function of Sleep Possible functions of sleep include: To conserve energy To restore the body (neurotransmitters, neuron sensitivity) To build “neural nets” and flush out useless information from the brain Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007The Need for Sleep Over the years, the need for REM sleep decreases considerably, while the need for NREM sleep diminishes less sharply Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Sleep Debt vs. The Circadian ClockSleep debt – Deficiency caused by not getting the amount of sleep that one requires for optimal functioning Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Why We Dream: A Cross-Cultural PerspectiveFolk theories Scientific approach Dreams as meaningful events Dreams as random brain activity Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Dreams as Meaningful EventsFreud believed dreams served the following two functions: To guard sleep To serve as sources of wish fulfillment Dream content Varies by culture, gender, and age Frequently connects with recent experience May help us form memories Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Dreams as Random Brain ActivityActivation-synthesis theory – Theory that dreams begin with random electrical activation coming from brain stem; dreams are brain’s attempt to make sense of this random activity Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Sleep Disorders Insomnia – Involves insufficient sleep, the inability to fall asleep quickly, frequent arousals, or early awakenings Sleep apnea – Respiratory disorder in which person intermittently stops breathing while asleep Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy – Involves sudden REM sleep attacks accompanied by cataplexy Cataplexy – Sudden loss of muscle control that occurs before narcoleptic sleep attack; waking form of sleep paralysis Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Sleep Disorders Night terrors – The screaming of a child in deep sleep, who, once awakened, has no memory of what mental events might have caused the fear Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take?An altered state of consciousness occurs when some aspect of normal consciousness is modified by mental, behavioral, or chemical means Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take?Hypnosis Meditation Psychoactive drug states Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Hypnosis Hypnosis – Induced state of altered awareness, characterized by heightened suggestibility and deep relaxation Hypnotizability – Degree to which an individual is responsive to hypnotic suggestions Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Hypnosis As an Altered StateExperts disagree about whether hypnosis involves A distinct state of consciousness Heightened motivation Social processes such as role playing A dissociate state (Hilgard’s “hidden observer” view) Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Practical Uses for HypnosisHypnosis can have practical uses for Researchers Psychological treatment Medical and dental treatment Hypnotic analgesia – Diminished sensitivity to pain while under hypnosis Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Meditation Meditation – Form of consciousness change induced by focusing on a repetitive behavior, assuming certain body positions and minimizing external stimulation Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Psychoactive Drug StatesPsychoactive drugs – Chemicals that affect mental processes and behavior by their effects on the nervous system Hallucinogens Opiates Depressants Stimulants Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Hallucinogens Alter perceptions of the external environment and inner awareness (also called psychedelics) Mescaline LSD PCP Cannabis Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Opiates Highly addictive; produce a sense of well-being and have strong pain-relieving properties Morphine Codeine Heroin Methadone Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Depressants Slow down mental and physical activity by inhibiting transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system Barbiturates Benzodiazepines (e.g. Valium) Alcohol Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Stimulants Arouse the central nervous system, speeding up mental and physical responses Cocaine Amphetamines Methamphetamine MDMA (ecstasy) Caffeine Nicotine Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007End of Chapter 5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 5 States of Consciousness This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.
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