Presentation on theme: "Unit 6 The Post Civil War Years"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 6 The Post Civil War Years U.S. HistoryUnit 6The Post Civil War Years
2The Post Civil War Years SSUSH11: Describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction.
3Industrial Growth Railroads and the West Played a major role in this industrial growth and expansion westFarmers, ranchers had easier access to eastern marketsUnion Pacific (eastern company) and Central Pacific (Sacramento, CA company) built the transcontinental railroadThe two companies joined their tracks at Promontory, Utah in 1869Large numbers of Irish and Chinese immigrants helped build the railroad – very dangerous, many died or were injured
5Industrial Growth Railroads and Big Business Railroads contributed to rise of the steel industry and big businessHenry Bessemer developed a method for making steel known as the Bessemer processSteel could be made cheaper, became more affordable – leading to faster expansion of railroads and constructionsBuildings became taller (skyscrapers)
6Industrial Growth Giants of Big Business A few men got rich developing the railroad industry – known as “robber barons”Crooked in their dealingsCornelius Vanderbilt: extended his New York Central railroad to reach Chicago in 1869Andrew Carnegie dominated the steel industrySold his business to J.P. Morgan for $500 million – Carnegie became the richest man in the world
7Industrial Growth Giants of Big Business Continued… John D. Rockefeller established the nation’s first trust, Standard Oil (a trust is a business arrangement under which a number of companies unite into one system)Trusts destroy competition by creating monopolies (only one supplier of a product)Used vertical integration – one corporationowns the company that produced the finishedproduct and that provides the necessary materials
8Industrial Growth Thomas Edison Most impactful inventor Phonograph recorded soundMotion picture camera eventually made movies possiblemost remembered for the Electric light bulbTransformed people’s lives; could work at night in factories, homes, officesCame up with the idea for central power companies
9Review1. What role did railroads play in opening the West and contributing to the rise of big business?2. Chinese and Irish immigrants are remembered forA. their contributions to the steel industry.B. their contributions to building the nation’s railroads.C. their refusal to work for giant’s of big business.D. working together to found the nation’s first trust.
10Review 3. John D. Rockefeller dominated the oil industry by A. refusing to use railroads to ship his products.B. focusing only on oil production and allowing other people’s companies to supply him with the materials he needed for production.C. establishing a trust.D. hiring large numbers of Chinese workers.4. Describe the impact of Thomas Edison’s light bulb.
11Western GrowthSSUSH12: Analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.
12Western Growth Reasons for Moving West Religious faith – Christian missionaries attempted to spread their message to Native AmericansMormons moved west to escape persecutionGold motivated others (California Gold Rush of 1849)Became the leading reason for conflict between white settlers and Native AmericansAvailable land also drew people west
14Western Growth Farming, Ranching, and Mining Settlers had to live in sod housesJohn Deere’s steel plow allowed farmers to plant crops in the Midwest and plains by enabling them to cut through the tough prairie sodWindmills allowed farmers to harness the wind’s power to pump water to the surfaceRailroads allowed farmers to import needed equipment from the East and shipping products
15Western Growth Farming, Ranching, and Mining Continued… Cattle ranching techniques were learned from the Mexicans – also taught settlers how to herd, raise, and drive cattle to marketImitated Mexican dress (cowboy hats, chaps)“Cowtowns” popped up as settlements where ranchers could be herded onto trains and shipped east to marketMining industry became important because of the discovery of goldMining camps/towns famous for gambling, prostitution, drinkingCorporations eventually dominated industry
16Western Growth Women, Immigrants, and African Americans out West Women experienced greater freedom; took on nontraditional rolesChinese and Irish immigrants came to work on the railroadAfrican Americans moved west after the Civil War (Black Exodus)Served as cowhands and soldiers (Buffalo Soldiers)
18Impact on Native Americans Buffalo and ReservationsPlains Indians depended on the buffalo for food, clothing, and shelterSettlers and fur trappers killed great numbers of buffaloBy 1889, 1,000 buffalo were left on the continentNative Americans were forced onto reservations (land set aside by the government)Constantly moved whenever gold was discovered
20Impact on Native Americans Violent ConfrontationsSometimes Native Americans resisted white settlementCheyenne warriors launched several raids on mining camps in 1861US forces killed 270 Native American women and childrenSioux Indians, under chiefs Red Cloud and Crazy Horse, and US general George Custer engaged in the Battle of Little BighornSioux killed Custer and 200 of his men (“Custer’s last stand) – last great victory for Native Americans
23Impact on Native Americans Violent Confrontations Continued…Nez Perce tribe killed several white settlers when the US government attempted to remove them from the Oregon TerritoryChief Joseph attempted to escape with his tribe to Canada but was stopped 30 miles from the borderForced to settle on reservations in OklahomaMany died from sickness and malnutrition
24Impact on Native Americans Wounded Kneethe last notable armed conflict between US troops and Native Americans occurred in 1890 at Wounded KneeSioux believed the Ghost Dance would bring back the buffalo, get back lost land, and banish the white man from earthSioux leader Sitting Bull was accused of mounting an uprisingSoldiers tried to arrest Sitting Bull and killed him in a gunfightDuring a pursuit of the Sioux to Wounded Knee Creek 150 Native Americans were killed (most unarmed)
25Review1. Which of the following would be the best way to describe the US government’s approach to dealing with Native Americans on the frontier?A. Negotiations, in which the aim was to share land peacefully with the tribes that had lived there for generations.B. Compensation, in which the US government paid tribal leaders whatever amount of money the two sides agreed the land was worth.C. Barter, in which Native Americans surrendered land in exchange for citizenship rights and the guarantee of being given land for families to own and farm.D. Conquest, in which the United States used its military to take Native American lands and relocate tribes to areas designated by the US government.
26Review2. Describe what occurred at Wounded Knee and tell why it is significant.3. What role did African Americans and women play in western expansion?
27Urban Growth and Immigration Urban Growth (Growth of US Cities)When cities increase in size it is called urban growthOut west, new towns grew out of nothing because of railroads and western settlementsIn the East, population increased due to industrialization and job opportunitiesNew York City saw the biggest growth
28Urban Growth and Immigration Most immigrants in the East came from EuropeImmigrants on the West coast came ChinaSome came seeking a better life, others to escape political persecutionsBy 1880, 80% of New Yorkers were foreign born
30Immigration Ellis Island Angel Island Opened in 1892 to handle large numbers of immigrantsLocated on a tiny island near the Statue of LibertyCultural pluralism is the presence of many different cultures within one societyAngel IslandLocated in San FranciscoAccepted Asian (mostly Chinese immigrants)
31Immigration Problems and Concerns Caused by Immigration Many Americans looked at immigrants negatively – felt they were taking jobsEthnic ghettos – neighborhoods where immigrants from a certain region or country tended to live together (seen as a sign of disloyalty by natives)Religious differences – most US citizens were Protestants, arriving immigrants were CatholicsBefore the Civil War most immigrants came from western Europe – Protestant whitesAt the end of 19th century/early 20th century immigrants came from eastern and southern Europe – Catholic, Jewish
32Immigration Nativism and Restriction on Immigration Nativism – opposing immigrationGrew, anti-immigrant groups formed; immigrants became victims of violence and discriminationChinese Exclusion Act 1882Prohibited Chinese immigrants from legally coming to the US; repealed in 1943
33Living and Working Conditions Whole families had to work because of low wagesMen, women, children worked in mills and factories – 12 hrs. a day, six days a weekChild labor became a common practiceChildren as young as five worked in factoriesWork hours were long, wages low, conditions dangerousPrivate contractors set up sweatshops (makeshift factories-poorly lit, poorly ventilated, unsafe)
35Living and Working Conditions Living conditions were hardmany migrants and immigrants lived in urban slums (poor, inner-city neighborhoods) in housing called tenements (overcrowded apartments that housed several families)There were open sewers that attracted ratsAir was dark and polluted from steam engines and boilersFire hazards
37The New Urban Lifestyle and Entertainment Transportation changedElectric trolleys followed by subways and trains allowed people to live outside the inner cityDevelopment of suburbs – middle and upper class moved further outUrban factory workers worked by the clock and had time for leisure and entertainmentMen frequented saloons; women enjoyed dance halls and cabarets; families went to amusement parks and vaudeville showsMovie industry and spectator sports became popular (boxing, horse racing, baseball)
39Review1. Which of the following statements would a nativist most support?A. “Since the US is suppose to be the land of the free and the country of opportunity, then let all those who desire freedom and a better life come to the U.S.”B. “immigration is bad for this country. Immigrants take jobs that otherwise would go to those born here, and their ways pollute and corrupt our way of life. We need laws to prevent immigration.”C. “Cultural diversity is a good thing. It is our differences and the way foreigners hold on to their traditional ways that make our nation great.”D. “God bless the Irish, the Polish, and the Jewish immigrant. Give ‘em a home here, I say. But blast the Chinese. Keep ‘em out by all means.
40Review2. What were some of the living and working conditions faced by poor laborers and immigrants to the US in the big cities?3. How did industrialization and urban growth affect lifestyle in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
41The Rise of Labor Unions Samuel Gompers and the AFLLabor unions – organizations of workers formed to protect the interests of its membersGrew out of poor working conditionsAmerican Federation of Labor (AFL) was the most influential – led by Samuel GompersFocused on wages, working hours, working conditions – used strikes, boycottsAlso believed in collective bargaining (negotiate as a group), mediation (use a neutral third party- decisions legally binding), arbitration (mediating third party’s decision is legally binding)
42The Rise of Labor Unions Strikes and ConfrontationsEmployers hated unions and took measures against themSome threatened to fire workers who were membersTurned to courts to intervene in strikesPullman Strike 1894George Pullman fired employees who protested the laying off of workers, then closed the plantEugene V. Debs led a boycott of Pullman cars nationwidePres. Cleveland sent in federal troops to end strike because it affected US mailSet a precedent for factories to involve courts to end strikes
43NTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND THE PROGRESSIVE ERA SSUSH13: Identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era.43
44REASONS FOR EXPANSIONIMPERIALISM – toward end of 19th century new U. S. attitude developed to reach beyond its borders and acquire more territoryReasonsMore marketsEconomic growthNational securityNational prideMoral obligation of the whites to civilize and take democracy to the rest of the world44
45ISOLATIONISM Isolationism: U. S. should not acquire control over foreign territories;Would cause U. S. to be pulled into foreign conflicts;Contradicted the principles of freedom and self-government on which the U. S. was founded45
46THE PACIFICPacific was area expansionists in U.S. turned their attentionWanted trade with China and other nations in Southeast AsiaWilliam Seward, Secretary of State, purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867Thirty years later purchased HawaiiThese two purchases opened trade routes across Pacific and gained valuable territory46
47CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT 1870s – depression hit west coast of U. S.;people resented cheap labor of Chinese immigrants;racism and acts of violence increased;In 1882 Congress passed Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 that prohibited further immigration from China for 10 years;after extended and remained in effect until 1943.47
48SPANISH AMERICAN WARCauses: abuse by Spaniards of Cubans in concentration camps in late1800s; U. S. newspaper articles about abuse (often exaggerated); people wanted U. S. to interveneWar starts:February 15, 1898; USS Maine exploded while anchored in a Cuban Harbor;Newspapers blamed Spain; U. S. demanded warU. S. declared War April 1898Asst. Sec. of Navy Theodore Roosevelt, resigned and led a group known as “Rough Riders”War lasted 3 monthsU. S. gained Cuba, Puerto Rico and GuamPlatt Amendment – put limits on what Cuba government could do; gave U. S. 2 Naval bases in Cuba; stayed in effect until 1930sPhilippines became a possession of the U. S.48
51U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN LATIN AMERICA PANAMA CANAL-Theodore Roosevelt president;Leased land across the isthmus of Panama to build a canal to connect Atlantic Ocean and Pacific OceanProvided economic and military interestsU. S. controlled land until December 199951
53ROOSEVELT COROLLARY“BIG STICK” Diplomacy – “speak softly and carry a big stick” (US would not be threatening, but would not hesitate to use force to protect interest)Issued 1904Expanded Monroe DoctrineModified it by saying that the US had the right to intervene in the region if a nation had trouble paying debtsRoosevelt used collection as excuse to occupy territories in Caribbean or Latin America53
55REVIEW QUESTIONSWhat were some of the arguments used to support US expansion?Someone who opposed US expansion and involvement in foreign affairs is known as what?a. an imperialist c. an expansionistb. An isolationist d. a mercantilist3. What was the Chinese Exclusion Act and why was it passed?What was Roosevelt’s Corollary and how did it expand upon the Monroe Doctrine?Theodore Roosevelt’s attitude about US expansions can best be described asa. Isolationist c. Imperialistb. Uninterested d. fearful55
56PROGRESSIVESSSUSH14 - Explain America’s evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the twentieth century56
57PROGRESSIVE ERA Time Period: turn of the twentieth century Beginning of political, social and economic change in the United StatesProgressives – those who supported reforms during the Progressive EraWhite, middle class, protestantsGovernment should regulate society57
58PROGRESSIVE ERA Types of government regulations More regulation of businessImprove wages for workersWork environmentLaws governing moralityDefine standards for educationStricter regulations over doctors, teachers and lawyersLower class needed the help of the Middle class to decide what was best for them58
59MUCKRAKERSDEFINED: writers during the Progressive period that exposed abuse in government and big businessPresident Theodore Roosevelt labeled these authors and journalists “muckrakers” because they uncovered the “muck” in U. S. societyMuckrakers:Lincoln Steffens – exposed political corruption in St. Louis and other citiesIda Tarbell – abuses in the Standard Oil trustUpton Sinclair – most famous; published novel The Jungle in 1906; exposed the truth about the meat packing industry; led to the creation of a federal meat inspection program59
61ROLE OF WOMENJane Addams – “mother of social work”; opened Hull House, a settlement house; settlement houses established in poor neighborhoods; helped fight for and win new child labor lawsCarrie Nation – led temperance movement; blame alcohol for society’s problems; many leaders were churchgoers and women; ratified 18th amendment in 1919 – prohibited the making, selling or transporting of any alcoholic beverage in the U.S.; later failed and was repealed61
62ROLE OF WOMEN IN PROGRESSIVE ERA Women’s suffrage movement – began at Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, women demanded suffrage (right to vote)Major leaders –Susan B. AnthonyElizabeth Cady Stanton1920 – Congress passed the 19th Amendment and after ratification by states women had the right to vote nationwide62
64PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT AND RACISM Jim Crow laws – common throughout South; allowed segregation; 1896 Supreme court case Plessy vs. Ferguson upheld separate, but equalW. E. B. Dubois – started Niagara Movement (group of black intellectuals); helped start the NAACP in 1909; devoted to progress of the African American community64
66LABOR LAWS AND LIVING CONDITIONS Living Conditions – reform where poor, urban laborers and immigrants livedHow the Other Half Lives – by Jacob Riis; revealed cramped spaces, filthy conditions and dangerous hazards found in the tenements (small, low-income apartments)Contributed to New York passing first laws aimed at improving urban tenementsLabor Laws – wanted shorter days; higher wages, and safer work environments; led to passage of legislation…minimum wage, shorter work week and safer conditions66
67POLITICAL REFORMS17th Amendment – established that U.S. senators would be elected directly by the people, rather that by state legislaturesOther ReformsInitiative – allowed citizens of a state to force a vote on a certain issue without having to wait for public officials to bring it upRecall – gave citizens power to hold special election to remove corrupt officials from office before end of their termReferendum – public officials would be elected by popular vote, rather than by party bosses, or state legislatures67
68REVIEW QUESTIONS a. Social worker c. progressive politician Ida Tarbell is best described as aa. Social worker c. progressive politicianb. Muckraker d. founding member of NAACPWhich of the following actions would be illegal under Jim Crow lawsa. White citizens joining the NAACPb. African Americans receiving PhDs.c. Progressives supporting segregation.d. Blacks and whites riding together on a train.3. What were the progressive changes established by the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Amendments?4. How did progressives feel about government regulations of society? What were their reasons for these views?68