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U.S. History Unit 6 The Post Civil War Years. SSUSH11: Describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction. SSUSH11:

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. History Unit 6 The Post Civil War Years. SSUSH11: Describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction. SSUSH11:"— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. History Unit 6 The Post Civil War Years

2 SSUSH11: Describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction. SSUSH11: Describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction.

3 Industrial Growth Railroads and the West Railroads and the West Played a major role in this industrial growth and expansion westPlayed a major role in this industrial growth and expansion west Farmers, ranchers had easier access to eastern marketsFarmers, ranchers had easier access to eastern markets Union Pacific (eastern company) and Central Pacific (Sacramento, CA company) built the transcontinental railroadUnion Pacific (eastern company) and Central Pacific (Sacramento, CA company) built the transcontinental railroad The two companies joined their tracks at Promontory, Utah in 1869 The two companies joined their tracks at Promontory, Utah in 1869 Large numbers of Irish and Chinese immigrants helped build the railroad – very dangerous, many died or were injured Large numbers of Irish and Chinese immigrants helped build the railroad – very dangerous, many died or were injured

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5 Industrial Growth Railroads and Big Business Railroads and Big Business Railroads contributed to rise of the steel industry and big businessRailroads contributed to rise of the steel industry and big business Henry Bessemer developed a method for making steel known as the Bessemer processHenry Bessemer developed a method for making steel known as the Bessemer process Steel could be made cheaper, became more affordable – leading to faster expansion of railroads and constructions Steel could be made cheaper, became more affordable – leading to faster expansion of railroads and constructions Buildings became taller (skyscrapers) Buildings became taller (skyscrapers)

6 Industrial Growth Giants of Big Business Giants of Big Business A few men got rich developing the railroad industry – known as robber baronsA few men got rich developing the railroad industry – known as robber barons Crooked in their dealings Crooked in their dealings Cornelius Vanderbilt: extended his New York Central railroad to reach Chicago in 1869Cornelius Vanderbilt: extended his New York Central railroad to reach Chicago in 1869 Andrew Carnegie dominated the steel industryAndrew Carnegie dominated the steel industry Sold his business to J.P. Morgan for $500 million – Carnegie became the richest man in the world Sold his business to J.P. Morgan for $500 million – Carnegie became the richest man in the world

7 Industrial Growth Giants of Big Business Continued… Giants of Big Business Continued… John D. Rockefeller established the nations first trust, Standard Oil (a trust is a business arrangement under which a number of companies unite into one system)John D. Rockefeller established the nations first trust, Standard Oil (a trust is a business arrangement under which a number of companies unite into one system) Trusts destroy competition by creating monopolies (only one supplier of a product) Trusts destroy competition by creating monopolies (only one supplier of a product) Used vertical integration – one corporation Used vertical integration – one corporation owns the company that produced the finished product and that provides the necessary materials

8 Industrial Growth Thomas Edison Thomas Edison Most impactful inventorMost impactful inventor Phonograph recorded sound Phonograph recorded sound Motion picture camera eventually made movies possible Motion picture camera eventually made movies possible most remembered for the Electric light bulb most remembered for the Electric light bulb Transformed peoples lives; could work at night in factories, homes, officesTransformed peoples lives; could work at night in factories, homes, offices Came up with the idea for central power companies Came up with the idea for central power companies

9 Review 1. What role did railroads play in opening the West and contributing to the rise of big business? 1. What role did railroads play in opening the West and contributing to the rise of big business? 2. Chinese and Irish immigrants are remembered for 2. Chinese and Irish immigrants are remembered for A. their contributions to the steel industry.A. their contributions to the steel industry. B. their contributions to building the nations railroads.B. their contributions to building the nations railroads. C. their refusal to work for giants of big business.C. their refusal to work for giants of big business. D. working together to found the nations first trust.D. working together to found the nations first trust.

10 Review 3. John D. Rockefeller dominated the oil industry by 3. John D. Rockefeller dominated the oil industry by A. refusing to use railroads to ship his products.A. refusing to use railroads to ship his products. B. focusing only on oil production and allowing other peoples companies to supply him with the materials he needed for production.B. focusing only on oil production and allowing other peoples companies to supply him with the materials he needed for production. C. establishing a trust.C. establishing a trust. D. hiring large numbers of Chinese workers.D. hiring large numbers of Chinese workers. 4. Describe the impact of Thomas Edisons light bulb. 4. Describe the impact of Thomas Edisons light bulb.

11 Western Growth SSUSH12: Analyze important consequences of American industrial growth. SSUSH12: Analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.

12 Western Growth Reasons for Moving West Reasons for Moving West Religious faith – Christian missionaries attempted to spread their message to Native AmericansReligious faith – Christian missionaries attempted to spread their message to Native Americans Mormons moved west to escape persecution Mormons moved west to escape persecution Gold motivated others (California Gold Rush of 1849)Gold motivated others (California Gold Rush of 1849) Became the leading reason for conflict between white settlers and Native Americans Became the leading reason for conflict between white settlers and Native Americans Available land also drew people westAvailable land also drew people west

13 California Gold Rush

14 Western Growth Farming, Ranching, and Mining Farming, Ranching, and Mining Settlers had to live in sod housesSettlers had to live in sod houses John Deeres steel plow allowed farmers to plant crops in the Midwest and plains by enabling them to cut through the tough prairie sodJohn Deeres steel plow allowed farmers to plant crops in the Midwest and plains by enabling them to cut through the tough prairie sod Windmills allowed farmers to harness the winds power to pump water to the surfaceWindmills allowed farmers to harness the winds power to pump water to the surface Railroads allowed farmers to import needed equipment from the East and shipping productsRailroads allowed farmers to import needed equipment from the East and shipping products

15 Western Growth Farming, Ranching, and Mining Continued… Farming, Ranching, and Mining Continued… Cattle ranching techniques were learned from the Mexicans – also taught settlers how to herd, raise, and drive cattle to marketCattle ranching techniques were learned from the Mexicans – also taught settlers how to herd, raise, and drive cattle to market Imitated Mexican dress (cowboy hats, chaps) Imitated Mexican dress (cowboy hats, chaps) Cowtowns popped up as settlements where ranchers could be herded onto trains and shipped east to marketCowtowns popped up as settlements where ranchers could be herded onto trains and shipped east to market Mining industry became important because of the discovery of goldMining industry became important because of the discovery of gold Mining camps/towns famous for gambling, prostitution, drinking Mining camps/towns famous for gambling, prostitution, drinking Corporations eventually dominated industry Corporations eventually dominated industry

16 Western Growth Women, Immigrants, and African Americans out West Women, Immigrants, and African Americans out West Women experienced greater freedom; took on nontraditional rolesWomen experienced greater freedom; took on nontraditional roles Chinese and Irish immigrants came to work on the railroadChinese and Irish immigrants came to work on the railroad African Americans moved west after the Civil War (Black Exodus)African Americans moved west after the Civil War (Black Exodus) Served as cowhands and soldiers (Buffalo Soldiers) Served as cowhands and soldiers (Buffalo Soldiers)

17 Buffalo Soldiers

18 Impact on Native Americans Buffalo and Reservations Buffalo and Reservations Plains Indians depended on the buffalo for food, clothing, and shelterPlains Indians depended on the buffalo for food, clothing, and shelter Settlers and fur trappers killed great numbers of buffaloSettlers and fur trappers killed great numbers of buffalo By 1889, 1,000 buffalo were left on the continent By 1889, 1,000 buffalo were left on the continent Native Americans were forced onto reservations (land set aside by the government)Native Americans were forced onto reservations (land set aside by the government) Constantly moved whenever gold was discovered Constantly moved whenever gold was discovered

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20 Impact on Native Americans Violent Confrontations Violent Confrontations Sometimes Native Americans resisted white settlementSometimes Native Americans resisted white settlement Cheyenne warriors launched several raids on mining camps in 1861Cheyenne warriors launched several raids on mining camps in 1861 US forces killed 270 Native American women and children US forces killed 270 Native American women and children Sioux Indians, under chiefs Red Cloud and Crazy Horse, and US general George Custer engaged in the Battle of Little Bighorn Sioux Indians, under chiefs Red Cloud and Crazy Horse, and US general George Custer engaged in the Battle of Little Bighorn Sioux killed Custer and 200 of his men (Custers last stand) – last great victory for Native AmericansSioux killed Custer and 200 of his men (Custers last stand) – last great victory for Native Americans

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23 Impact on Native Americans Violent Confrontations Continued… Violent Confrontations Continued… Nez Perce tribe killed several white settlers when the US government attempted to remove them from the Oregon TerritoryNez Perce tribe killed several white settlers when the US government attempted to remove them from the Oregon Territory Chief Joseph attempted to escape with his tribe to Canada but was stopped 30 miles from the borderChief Joseph attempted to escape with his tribe to Canada but was stopped 30 miles from the border Forced to settle on reservations in Oklahoma Forced to settle on reservations in Oklahoma Many died from sickness and malnutrition Many died from sickness and malnutrition

24 Impact on Native Americans Wounded Knee Wounded Knee the last notable armed conflict between US troops and Native Americans occurred in 1890 at Wounded Kneethe last notable armed conflict between US troops and Native Americans occurred in 1890 at Wounded Knee Sioux believed the Ghost Dance would bring back the buffalo, get back lost land, and banish the white man from earth Sioux believed the Ghost Dance would bring back the buffalo, get back lost land, and banish the white man from earth Sioux leader Sitting Bull was accused of mounting an uprising Sioux leader Sitting Bull was accused of mounting an uprising Soldiers tried to arrest Sitting Bull and killed him in a gunfightSoldiers tried to arrest Sitting Bull and killed him in a gunfight During a pursuit of the Sioux to Wounded Knee Creek 150 Native Americans were killed (most unarmed)During a pursuit of the Sioux to Wounded Knee Creek 150 Native Americans were killed (most unarmed)

25 Review 1. Which of the following would be the best way to describe the US governments approach to dealing with Native Americans on the frontier? 1. Which of the following would be the best way to describe the US governments approach to dealing with Native Americans on the frontier? A. Negotiations, in which the aim was to share land peacefully with the tribes that had lived there for generations.A. Negotiations, in which the aim was to share land peacefully with the tribes that had lived there for generations. B. Compensation, in which the US government paid tribal leaders whatever amount of money the two sides agreed the land was worth.B. Compensation, in which the US government paid tribal leaders whatever amount of money the two sides agreed the land was worth. C. Barter, in which Native Americans surrendered land in exchange for citizenship rights and the guarantee of being given land for families to own and farm.C. Barter, in which Native Americans surrendered land in exchange for citizenship rights and the guarantee of being given land for families to own and farm. D. Conquest, in which the United States used its military to take Native American lands and relocate tribes to areas designated by the US government.D. Conquest, in which the United States used its military to take Native American lands and relocate tribes to areas designated by the US government.

26 Review 2. Describe what occurred at Wounded Knee and tell why it is significant. 2. Describe what occurred at Wounded Knee and tell why it is significant. 3. What role did African Americans and women play in western expansion? 3. What role did African Americans and women play in western expansion?

27 Urban Growth and Immigration Urban Growth (Growth of US Cities) Urban Growth (Growth of US Cities) When cities increase in size it is called urban growthWhen cities increase in size it is called urban growth Out west, new towns grew out of nothing because of railroads and western settlementsOut west, new towns grew out of nothing because of railroads and western settlements In the East, population increased due to industrialization and job opportunitiesIn the East, population increased due to industrialization and job opportunities New York City saw the biggest growth New York City saw the biggest growth

28 Urban Growth and Immigration Immigration Immigration Most immigrants in the East came from EuropeMost immigrants in the East came from Europe Immigrants on the West coast came ChinaImmigrants on the West coast came China Some came seeking a better life, others to escape political persecutionsSome came seeking a better life, others to escape political persecutions By 1880, 80% of New Yorkers were foreign bornBy 1880, 80% of New Yorkers were foreign born

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30 Immigration Ellis Island Ellis Island Opened in 1892 to handle large numbers of immigrantsOpened in 1892 to handle large numbers of immigrants Located on a tiny island near the Statue of LibertyLocated on a tiny island near the Statue of Liberty Cultural pluralism is the presence of many different cultures within one societyCultural pluralism is the presence of many different cultures within one society Angel Island Angel Island Located in San FranciscoLocated in San Francisco Accepted Asian (mostly Chinese immigrants)Accepted Asian (mostly Chinese immigrants)

31 Immigration Problems and Concerns Caused by Immigration Problems and Concerns Caused by Immigration Many Americans looked at immigrants negatively – felt they were taking jobsMany Americans looked at immigrants negatively – felt they were taking jobs Ethnic ghettos – neighborhoods where immigrants from a certain region or country tended to live together (seen as a sign of disloyalty by natives)Ethnic ghettos – neighborhoods where immigrants from a certain region or country tended to live together (seen as a sign of disloyalty by natives) Religious differences – most US citizens were Protestants, arriving immigrants were CatholicsReligious differences – most US citizens were Protestants, arriving immigrants were Catholics Before the Civil War most immigrants came from western Europe – Protestant whites Before the Civil War most immigrants came from western Europe – Protestant whites At the end of 19 th century/early 20 th century immigrants came from eastern and southern Europe – Catholic, Jewish At the end of 19 th century/early 20 th century immigrants came from eastern and southern Europe – Catholic, Jewish

32 Immigration Nativism and Restriction on Immigration Nativism and Restriction on Immigration Nativism – opposing immigrationNativism – opposing immigration Grew, anti-immigrant groups formed; immigrants became victims of violence and discrimination Grew, anti-immigrant groups formed; immigrants became victims of violence and discrimination Chinese Exclusion Act 1882Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 Prohibited Chinese immigrants from legally coming to the US; repealed in 1943 Prohibited Chinese immigrants from legally coming to the US; repealed in 1943

33 Living and Working Conditions Whole families had to work because of low wages Whole families had to work because of low wages Men, women, children worked in mills and factories – 12 hrs. a day, six days a weekMen, women, children worked in mills and factories – 12 hrs. a day, six days a week Child labor became a common practiceChild labor became a common practice Children as young as five worked in factories Children as young as five worked in factories Work hours were long, wages low, conditions dangerousWork hours were long, wages low, conditions dangerous Private contractors set up sweatshops (makeshift factories-poorly lit, poorly ventilated, unsafe)Private contractors set up sweatshops (makeshift factories-poorly lit, poorly ventilated, unsafe)

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35 Living and Working Conditions Living conditions were hard Living conditions were hard many migrants and immigrants lived in urban slums (poor, inner-city neighborhoods) in housing called tenements (overcrowded apartments that housed several families)many migrants and immigrants lived in urban slums (poor, inner-city neighborhoods) in housing called tenements (overcrowded apartments that housed several families) There were open sewers that attracted rats There were open sewers that attracted rats Air was dark and polluted from steam engines and boilers Air was dark and polluted from steam engines and boilers Fire hazards Fire hazards

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37 The New Urban Lifestyle and Entertainment Transportation changed Transportation changed Electric trolleys followed by subways and trains allowed people to live outside the inner cityElectric trolleys followed by subways and trains allowed people to live outside the inner city Development of suburbs – middle and upper class moved further outDevelopment of suburbs – middle and upper class moved further out Urban factory workers worked by the clock and had time for leisure and entertainmentUrban factory workers worked by the clock and had time for leisure and entertainment Men frequented saloons; women enjoyed dance halls and cabarets; families went to amusement parks and vaudeville shows Men frequented saloons; women enjoyed dance halls and cabarets; families went to amusement parks and vaudeville shows Movie industry and spectator sports became popular (boxing, horse racing, baseball)Movie industry and spectator sports became popular (boxing, horse racing, baseball)

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39 Review 1. Which of the following statements would a nativist most support? 1. Which of the following statements would a nativist most support? A. Since the US is suppose to be the land of the free and the country of opportunity, then let all those who desire freedom and a better life come to the U.S.A. Since the US is suppose to be the land of the free and the country of opportunity, then let all those who desire freedom and a better life come to the U.S. B. immigration is bad for this country. Immigrants take jobs that otherwise would go to those born here, and their ways pollute and corrupt our way of life. We need laws to prevent immigration.B. immigration is bad for this country. Immigrants take jobs that otherwise would go to those born here, and their ways pollute and corrupt our way of life. We need laws to prevent immigration. C. Cultural diversity is a good thing. It is our differences and the way foreigners hold on to their traditional ways that make our nation great.C. Cultural diversity is a good thing. It is our differences and the way foreigners hold on to their traditional ways that make our nation great. D. God bless the Irish, the Polish, and the Jewish immigrant. Give em a home here, I say. But blast the Chinese. Keep em out by all means.D. God bless the Irish, the Polish, and the Jewish immigrant. Give em a home here, I say. But blast the Chinese. Keep em out by all means.

40 Review 2. What were some of the living and working conditions faced by poor laborers and immigrants to the US in the big cities? 2. What were some of the living and working conditions faced by poor laborers and immigrants to the US in the big cities? 3. How did industrialization and urban growth affect lifestyle in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? 3. How did industrialization and urban growth affect lifestyle in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?

41 The Rise of Labor Unions Samuel Gompers and the AFL Samuel Gompers and the AFL Labor unions – organizations of workers formed to protect the interests of its membersLabor unions – organizations of workers formed to protect the interests of its members Grew out of poor working conditions Grew out of poor working conditions American Federation of Labor (AFL) was the most influential – led by Samuel Gompers American Federation of Labor (AFL) was the most influential – led by Samuel Gompers Focused on wages, working hours, working conditions – used strikes, boycottsFocused on wages, working hours, working conditions – used strikes, boycotts Also believed in collective bargaining (negotiate as a group), mediation (use a neutral third party- decisions legally binding), arbitration (mediating third partys decision is legally binding)Also believed in collective bargaining (negotiate as a group), mediation (use a neutral third party- decisions legally binding), arbitration (mediating third partys decision is legally binding)

42 The Rise of Labor Unions Strikes and Confrontations Strikes and Confrontations Employers hated unions and took measures against themEmployers hated unions and took measures against them Some threatened to fire workers who were members Some threatened to fire workers who were members Turned to courts to intervene in strikes Turned to courts to intervene in strikes Pullman Strike 1894Pullman Strike 1894 George Pullman fired employees who protested the laying off of workers, then closed the plant George Pullman fired employees who protested the laying off of workers, then closed the plant Eugene V. Debs led a boycott of Pullman cars nationwide Eugene V. Debs led a boycott of Pullman cars nationwide Pres. Cleveland sent in federal troops to end strike because it affected US mailPres. Cleveland sent in federal troops to end strike because it affected US mail Set a precedent for factories to involve courts to end strikesSet a precedent for factories to involve courts to end strikes

43 NTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND THE PROGRESSIVE ERA SSUSH13: Identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era.

44 REASONS FOR EXPANSION IMPERIALISM – toward end of 19 th century new U. S. attitude developed to reach beyond its borders and acquire more territory IMPERIALISM – toward end of 19 th century new U. S. attitude developed to reach beyond its borders and acquire more territory Reasons Reasons More markets More markets Economic growth Economic growth National security National security National pride National pride Moral obligation of the whites to civilize and take democracy to the rest of the world Moral obligation of the whites to civilize and take democracy to the rest of the world

45 ISOLATIONISM Isolationism: Isolationism: U. S. should not acquire control over foreign territories; U. S. should not acquire control over foreign territories; Would cause U. S. to be pulled into foreign conflicts; Would cause U. S. to be pulled into foreign conflicts; Contradicted the principles of freedom and self-government on which the U. S. was founded Contradicted the principles of freedom and self-government on which the U. S. was founded

46 THE PACIFIC Pacific was area expansionists in U.S. turned their attention Pacific was area expansionists in U.S. turned their attention Wanted trade with China and other nations in Southeast Asia Wanted trade with China and other nations in Southeast Asia William Seward, Secretary of State, purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867 William Seward, Secretary of State, purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867 Thirty years later purchased Hawaii Thirty years later purchased Hawaii These two purchases opened trade routes across Pacific and gained valuable territory These two purchases opened trade routes across Pacific and gained valuable territory

47 CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT 1870s – 1870s – depression hit west coast of U. S.; depression hit west coast of U. S.; people resented cheap labor of Chinese immigrants; people resented cheap labor of Chinese immigrants; racism and acts of violence increased; racism and acts of violence increased; In 1882 Congress passed Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 that prohibited further immigration from China for 10 years; In 1882 Congress passed Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 that prohibited further immigration from China for 10 years; after extended and remained in effect until after extended and remained in effect until 1943.

48 SPANISH AMERICAN WAR Causes: abuse by Spaniards of Cubans in concentration camps in late1800s; U. S. newspaper articles about abuse (often exaggerated); people wanted U. S. to intervene Causes: abuse by Spaniards of Cubans in concentration camps in late1800s; U. S. newspaper articles about abuse (often exaggerated); people wanted U. S. to intervene War starts: War starts: February 15, 1898; USS Maine exploded while anchored in a Cuban Harbor; February 15, 1898; USS Maine exploded while anchored in a Cuban Harbor; Newspapers blamed Spain; U. S. demanded war Newspapers blamed Spain; U. S. demanded war U. S. declared War April 1898 U. S. declared War April 1898 Asst. Sec. of Navy Theodore Roosevelt, resigned and led a group known as Rough Riders Asst. Sec. of Navy Theodore Roosevelt, resigned and led a group known as Rough Riders War lasted 3 months War lasted 3 months U. S. gained Cuba, Puerto Rico and Guam U. S. gained Cuba, Puerto Rico and Guam Platt Amendment – put limits on what Cuba government could do; gave U. S. 2 Naval bases in Cuba; stayed in effect until 1930s Platt Amendment – put limits on what Cuba government could do; gave U. S. 2 Naval bases in Cuba; stayed in effect until 1930s Philippines became a possession of the U. S. Philippines became a possession of the U. S.

49 USS MAINE – explodes Havana Harbor

50 Theodore Roosevelt led Rough Riders

51 U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN LATIN AMERICA PANAMA CANAL- PANAMA CANAL- Theodore Roosevelt president; Theodore Roosevelt president; Leased land across the isthmus of Panama to build a canal to connect Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean Leased land across the isthmus of Panama to build a canal to connect Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean Provided economic and military interests Provided economic and military interests U. S. controlled land until December 1999 U. S. controlled land until December 1999

52 PANAMA CANAL

53 ROOSEVELT COROLLARY BIG STICK Diplomacy – speak softly and carry a big stick (US would not be threatening, but would not hesitate to use force to protect interest) BIG STICK Diplomacy – speak softly and carry a big stick (US would not be threatening, but would not hesitate to use force to protect interest) Issued 1904 Issued 1904 Expanded Monroe Doctrine Expanded Monroe Doctrine Modified it by saying that the US had the right to intervene in the region if a nation had trouble paying debts Modified it by saying that the US had the right to intervene in the region if a nation had trouble paying debts Roosevelt used collection as excuse to occupy territories in Caribbean or Latin America Roosevelt used collection as excuse to occupy territories in Caribbean or Latin America

54 Big Stick Diplomacy

55 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What were some of the arguments used to support US expansion? 2. Someone who opposed US expansion and involvement in foreign affairs is known as what? a. an imperialistc. an expansionist a. an imperialistc. an expansionist b. An isolationistd. a mercantilist b. An isolationistd. a mercantilist 3. What was the Chinese Exclusion Act and why was it passed? 3. What was the Chinese Exclusion Act and why was it passed? 4. What was Roosevelts Corollary and how did it expand upon the Monroe Doctrine? 5. Theodore Roosevelts attitude about US expansions can best be described as a. Isolationist c. Imperialist a. Isolationist c. Imperialist b. Uninterested d. fearful b. Uninterested d. fearful

56 PROGRESSIVES SSUSH14 - Explain Americas evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the twentieth century SSUSH14 - Explain Americas evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the twentieth century

57 PROGRESSIVE ERA Time Period: turn of the twentieth century Time Period: turn of the twentieth century Beginning of political, social and economic change in the United States Beginning of political, social and economic change in the United States Progressives – those who supported reforms during the Progressive Era Progressives – those who supported reforms during the Progressive Era White, middle class, protestants White, middle class, protestants Government should regulate society Government should regulate society

58 PROGRESSIVE ERA Types of government regulations Types of government regulations More regulation of business More regulation of business Improve wages for workers Improve wages for workers Work environment Work environment Laws governing morality Laws governing morality Define standards for education Define standards for education Stricter regulations over doctors, teachers and lawyers Stricter regulations over doctors, teachers and lawyers Lower class needed the help of the Middle class to decide what was best for them Lower class needed the help of the Middle class to decide what was best for them

59 MUCKRAKERS DEFINED: writers during the Progressive period that exposed abuse in government and big business DEFINED: writers during the Progressive period that exposed abuse in government and big business President Theodore Roosevelt labeled these authors and journalists muckrakers because they uncovered the muck in U. S. society President Theodore Roosevelt labeled these authors and journalists muckrakers because they uncovered the muck in U. S. society Muckrakers: Muckrakers: Lincoln Steffens – exposed political corruption in St. Louis and other cities Lincoln Steffens – exposed political corruption in St. Louis and other cities Ida Tarbell – abuses in the Standard Oil trust Ida Tarbell – abuses in the Standard Oil trust Upton Sinclair – most famous; published novel The Jungle in 1906; exposed the truth about the meat packing industry; led to the creation of a federal meat inspection program Upton Sinclair – most famous; published novel The Jungle in 1906; exposed the truth about the meat packing industry; led to the creation of a federal meat inspection program

60 MUCKRAKERS Ida Tarbell Upton Sinclair

61 ROLE OF WOMEN Jane Addams – mother of social work; opened Hull House, a settlement house; settlement houses established in poor neighborhoods; helped fight for and win new child labor laws Jane Addams – mother of social work; opened Hull House, a settlement house; settlement houses established in poor neighborhoods; helped fight for and win new child labor laws Carrie Nation – led temperance movement; blame alcohol for societys problems; many leaders were churchgoers and women; ratified 18 th amendment in 1919 – prohibited the making, selling or transporting of any alcoholic beverage in the U.S.; later failed and was repealed Carrie Nation – led temperance movement; blame alcohol for societys problems; many leaders were churchgoers and women; ratified 18 th amendment in 1919 – prohibited the making, selling or transporting of any alcoholic beverage in the U.S.; later failed and was repealed

62 ROLE OF WOMEN IN PROGRESSIVE ERA Womens suffrage movement – began at Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, women demanded suffrage (right to vote) Womens suffrage movement – began at Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, women demanded suffrage (right to vote) Major leaders – Major leaders – Susan B. Anthony Susan B. Anthony Elizabeth Cady Stanton Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1920 – Congress passed the 19 th Amendment and after ratification by states women had the right to vote nationwide 1920 – Congress passed the 19 th Amendment and after ratification by states women had the right to vote nationwide

63 Womens Suffrage

64 PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT AND RACISM Jim Crow laws – common throughout South; allowed segregation; 1896 Supreme court case Plessy vs. Ferguson upheld separate, but equal Jim Crow laws – common throughout South; allowed segregation; 1896 Supreme court case Plessy vs. Ferguson upheld separate, but equal W. E. B. Dubois – started Niagara Movement (group of black intellectuals); helped start the NAACP in 1909; devoted to progress of the African American community W. E. B. Dubois – started Niagara Movement (group of black intellectuals); helped start the NAACP in 1909; devoted to progress of the African American community

65 W. E. B. Dubois

66 LABOR LAWS AND LIVING CONDITIONS Living Conditions – reform where poor, urban laborers and immigrants lived Living Conditions – reform where poor, urban laborers and immigrants lived How the Other Half Lives – by Jacob Riis; revealed cramped spaces, filthy conditions and dangerous hazards found in the tenements (small, low-income apartments) How the Other Half Lives – by Jacob Riis; revealed cramped spaces, filthy conditions and dangerous hazards found in the tenements (small, low-income apartments) Contributed to New York passing first laws aimed at improving urban tenements Contributed to New York passing first laws aimed at improving urban tenements Labor Laws – wanted shorter days; higher wages, and safer work environments; led to passage of legislation…minimum wage, shorter work week and safer conditions Labor Laws – wanted shorter days; higher wages, and safer work environments; led to passage of legislation…minimum wage, shorter work week and safer conditions

67 POLITICAL REFORMS 17 th Amendment – established that U.S. senators would be elected directly by the people, rather that by state legislatures 17 th Amendment – established that U.S. senators would be elected directly by the people, rather that by state legislatures Other Reforms Other Reforms Initiative – allowed citizens of a state to force a vote on a certain issue without having to wait for public officials to bring it up Initiative – allowed citizens of a state to force a vote on a certain issue without having to wait for public officials to bring it up Recall – gave citizens power to hold special election to remove corrupt officials from office before end of their term Recall – gave citizens power to hold special election to remove corrupt officials from office before end of their term Referendum – public officials would be elected by popular vote, rather than by party bosses, or state legislatures Referendum – public officials would be elected by popular vote, rather than by party bosses, or state legislatures

68 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Ida Tarbell is best described as a a. Social workerc. progressive politician a. Social workerc. progressive politician b. Muckrakerd. founding member of NAACP b. Muckrakerd. founding member of NAACP 2. Which of the following actions would be illegal under Jim Crow laws a. White citizens joining the NAACP a. White citizens joining the NAACP b. African Americans receiving PhDs. b. African Americans receiving PhDs. c. Progressives supporting segregation. c. Progressives supporting segregation. d. Blacks and whites riding together on a train. d. Blacks and whites riding together on a train. 3. What were the progressive changes established by the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Amendments? 3. What were the progressive changes established by the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Amendments? 4. How did progressives feel about government regulations of society? What were their reasons for these views? 4. How did progressives feel about government regulations of society? What were their reasons for these views?


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