Presentation on theme: "CONFEDERATION TO CONSTITUTION 1776-1791. Problems America Faced War Debt Who collects taxes? Who creates money? Deciding on a government Strong."— Presentation transcript:
Problems America Faced War Debt Who collects taxes? Who creates money? Deciding on a government Strong Central Government or Give powers to States
Government The Americans main goal was to prevent governmental tyranny from reappearing in the new nation. No More King!- States pass Bill of Rights The people decided that the new nation should be a republic. A country in which people choose representatives to govern them. After the colonist declared independence in 1776, each of the states started to create their own government. States feared that one part of the government could become to powerful. Some states created separate branches of government.
The Confederation Era During the Revolutionary war, Americans realized that they had to unite to win the war against Britain. Forming a national government was key to national unity. John Dickson wrote” By uniting we stand, by divided we fall” In 1777 The Continental Congress created the Articles of Confederation. First Form of American Government!
Expansion in the Northwest Many of the colonist disagreed with who should control the North West Territory. Small States with few Western lands would not be able to pay off debts; so they refused to ratify the Articles of Confederation. Gradually, all the states gave up their clams to western lands. This led the small states to ratify the Articles. In 1781 Maryland accepted the articles and the thirteen colonies were created.
Governing the Northwest Territory With new land the Northwest Territory had to be governed. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 outlined how the territory would be governed. 5,000 free adults males in an area, men who owned at least 50 acres could elect an assembly. 60,000 they could apply to be a state Slavery was outlawed Freedom of religion & trial by jury were guaranteed.
Problems with Britain and Spain After the Revolutionary War, America was in massive debt with Great Britain and Spain. Since the colonies were slow and not paying their debt off, Britain and Spain interfered with American Ships This reveled a major issue with the Articles of Confederation. The United States did not have the strength to face up to the superior British or Spain.
Shay’s Rebellion From August 1786 to February 1787 Daniel Shay led an armed uprising. Farmers in Massachusetts felt they were being taxed unfairly. (Taxes would be used to pay off GB and Spain) Shay and the other farmers attacked county courts. They succeeded in stopping the courts from selling farmers possessions and jailing people who couldn’t pay their debts. The Colonist felt they needed a stronger national government. This could be done by giving more money to the government.
Features of the Articles of Confederation Strength’sWeaknesses States had tons of independence Creation of Congress Not a strong military Congress had no power to enforce its laws Congress has no power to create money Each State was independent and had its own government. Each State would send representatives to “Congress of Confederation” Congress was the only branch of government In Congress, each state had one vote.
Disagreements over Representation Virginia PlanNew Jersey Plan Legislative Branch Two (branches) houses: representation determined by state population or wealth Lower House: elected by the people Upper House: elected by the lower One house: one vote for each state, regardless of size Elected by state legislatures Executive Branch Appointed by Legislature Judicial Branch Appointed by Legislature Appointed by Executive
The Great Compromise Great Compromise Roger Sherman and other delegates from Connecticut offered a deal known as the Great Compromise. Equal number of votes in the senate House of representatives were according to state population Three-Fifths Compromise Southerners wanted the slaves to be counted as part of the population for representation but not for taxation. Three-Fifths of the slave population would be counted for representation and taxation.
Creating the Constitution At first, many Americans doubted that the national government needed strengthening. But fear of rebellion and lawlessness had changed peoples minds. The Constitutional Convention opened on May 25, 1787. The first order of business was to nominate a president for the convention George Washington Constitution is created 1787
Federalist Federalism- is a system of government in which power is shared between the central or federal government. The Federalist promoted their view and answered critics in a series of essays known as The Federalist papers James Madison Alexander Hamilton John Jay
Antifederalist The Antifederalist thought the Constitution took too much power away from the states. Did not guarantee rights for people Others feared the Senate might become a powerful ruling class. Strong President might become King Antifederalist received support from rural areas Strong government=greater taxes New York Famous Antifederalist Patrick Henry George Mason
The Battle for Ratification Antifederalist wanted written guarantees of individual rights Bill of Rights 1789 Submitted by James Madison In December 1787, Delaware, NJ, PA voted for ratification. Officially ratified June 21, 1788. 1790 NC and Rhode Island