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WORLD WAR I 1914-1918. I. Background A. Extreme Nationalism 1. Unified Germany 2. Unified Italy B. Aggressive Militarism 1. Competition b/t Germany &

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR I 1914-1918. I. Background A. Extreme Nationalism 1. Unified Germany 2. Unified Italy B. Aggressive Militarism 1. Competition b/t Germany &"— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR I 1914-1918

2 I. Background A. Extreme Nationalism 1. Unified Germany 2. Unified Italy B. Aggressive Militarism 1. Competition b/t Germany & Britain C. System of Alliances 1. Emperors League 2. Dual Alliance--> Germany & Austria- Hungary 3. Triple Alliance --> Germany, Austria- Hungary, & Italy 4. Triple Entente--> France, Russia, Britain

3 II. War in Europe A. Beginning of the Great War 1. 6/1914 Princip killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife in Sarajevo, an province of Austria-Hungary 2. Austria issued an ultimatum to Serbia- let Austria examine & litigate the investigation 3. Serbia refused to accept terms a. supported by Russia 4. 1/1914 Germany declared war on Russia 5. Germany launched massive invasion of France violating Belgium neutrality (Schlieffen Plan)

4 a. knock out France & avoid 2-front war b. Britain sensing threat to coastline allied w/France; declared war on Germany 8/4/1914 c. 1915 Italy d. trench warfare 6. Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary (later Ottoman Empire) 7. Allies: France, Britain, Russia ( later Japan, Italy & the US) B. U.S. Neutrality 1. Wilson called for neutrality in thought and deed Isolationist foreign policy

5 C. U.S. money flows to Europe 1. Initially negative impact on the economy a. European countries went off gold standard & wanted to exchange American securities for American gold b. U.S. plunged into recession 2. 1915 U.S. economy revived British & French war orders a. trade w/Allies 2.4 billion loans exceeded 3 billion b. Germanys trade prevented by Br. Navy blockade

6 3. Br. forced American vessels into Br. Ports which effectively ended any US- German trade a. German announced a submarine war area around Br. Isles b. Germany would try to not sink neutral ships c. Wilson warned that strict accountability would apply( US vessels/citizens) D. Submarine warfare 1. 1st months German U-boats sank 90 ships 2. 5/7/1915 Lusitania sunk --1,198 dead (128) a. carrying 4,200 cases of ammunition & Germans refused to apologize

7 b. American public opinion turned against Germany US entry into the war inevitable 3. Wilson warns Ger. SOS William Jennings Bryan resigned a. What did Wilson fail to do? contributory negligence 4. 8/1915 Br. liner, the Arabic was sunk - Germany agreed not sink passenger ship w/o warning E. House-Grey Memorandum- peace w/o victory F. Sussex Ultimatum – response to Am casualties aboard the Sussex no shooting w/o warning

8 1. Wilson break diplomatic relations prelude to war 2. Germany US should persuade Allies to modify illegal blockade 3. Why is Wilson in a precarious situation? 4. Wilson mobilization a. Revenue Acts of 1916 & 1917 b. Army Reorganization Bill 200K G. 1/1917 Wilson suggested peace without victory only durable option Yes? No? Why

9 III. German aggression pulls US into war A. 1/1917, Germany announced policy of unrestricted submarine warfare 1. All ships would be sunk including Am. Ships 2. US had not honored the Sussex pledge B. Wilson broke diplomatic relations w/Germany 1. Asked Congress for authority to arm US merchant ships; Midwestern Senators blocked the request C. Zimmerman Note- intercepted by Br. & published in US 3/1917

10 1. German foreign sec. Zimmerman proposed alliance w/ MX--> get back TX, NM, AZ 2. Japan would be invited into anti-US alliance 3. Americans outraged D. 3/1917 Germans U-boats sank 4 unarmed US merchant ships E. 4/2/1917, Wilson asked joint session of Congress for a declaration of war 1. 4/6/1917 America declared war on Germany a. unrestricted sub warfare b. Zimmerman note c. Russian Revolution

11 d. US could end war quickly e. moral reason: German mass-killing of civilians IV. Wilson Idealism A. for over a century, US had proud tradition of isolationism from Europe B. Wilson needed to instill burning idealism to inspire Americans to fight 1. Make the world safe for democracy 2. A war to end war 3. Represented US as altruistic v. selfish aims of the Europeans a. international order w/democracy at its core

12 V. Mobilizing for war A. Creel Committee 1. Committee of Public Information-created to sell America on the war and sell the world on Wilsons aims a. headed by George Creel b. voluntary censorship of press c. propagandize American war effort 2. Set up volunteer Liberty Leagues - neighbors spied on each other & report to justice dept 3. Did the job too well & world expected too much

13 B. Restrictions on Civil Liberties 1. Most serious attacks on freedoms since 1798 2. Anti-German hysteria swept US ( Creel Comm) 3. Espionage Act of 1917- fines & prison for aiding the enemy or obstructing the draft 4. Sedition Act of 1918- forbade criticism of govt, flag, uniform --> 1900 prosecutions a. anti-war Socialists & IWW targeted b. Eugene Debs sentenced to 10 years c. William D. Big Bill Hayward & 99 other IWWs convicted

14 d. Schenck v. US ( 1919)- upheld the constitutionality of the Espionage Act i. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. stated that Congress could limit free speech… clear and present danger ii. Mild press censorship; radical papers were denied mailing privileges 5. WWI constituted an ugly chapter in history of US civil liberty a. after the war presidential pardons freely granted b. Wilson vetoed bill to abolish espionage & sedition acts--> proved to be on of most nativist presidents

15 C. Mobilizing factories 1. nations economy initially not geared for war a. Wilson reluctantly backed preparedness in 1915 ( our army ranked 15 th ) b. ignorance regarding war preparedness – fear of big govt hurt efforts to centralize economy 2. Bernard Baruch headed the War Industries Board in 3/1918 a. formed by Wilson after battles w/Congress b. control raw material, production, prices & labor relations c.WIB never really had much power

16 d. set precedent for future govt- industry cooperation ; 1920s & 1930s 3. Encouraging workers for the war effort a. slogan, Labor Will Win the War b. women encouraged to enter industry & agriculture Wilsons support of 19 th amendment c. 1000s of African Americans in the South migrated North i. increase in race riots in northern cities ii. war effort supported by DuBois d. Work or fight rule issued by War Dept 1918

17 4. Grievances of labor a. WWI inflation 2X since 1914 b. 6,000 strikes during the war; many by IWW ( Wobblies) c. National War Labor Board (oversee disputes) i. Headed by Taft ii. no strikes but encouraged progressive reforms; higher $, 8-hr day, recognized right to unionize iii. Union membership up to 4 mil from 2.5mil VI The War Economy A. Herbert Hoover & the Food Administration 1.. Preferred to rely on voluntary compliance

18 a. used propaganda b. wheatless Wednesdays, meatless Tuesdays c. victory gardens d. fixed high prices to encourage wheat/pork 3. Congress restricted the use of foodstuffs for manufacturing alcoholic beverages a. accelerated prohibition fever 18 th amendment 4. farm production incrsd by 25%, food exports to Allies 3x a. other war agencies imitated methods B. Bond Drives (Liberty Loans)

19 1. parades to promote liberty loan incrsd money supply inflation 2. German Americans coerced to buy LBs C. combined efforts netted 2/3 of US cost of war - remaining $10.5 billion raised by incrsd taxes D. Government enforcement 1. took over nations RR 2. seized enemy merchant vessels 3. US contribution was food, money and men VII Mobilizing the army A. 4-5/1917 allies were running out of manpower; Western Front would collapse

20 B. Wilson proposed universal male conscription 1. Selective Service Act passed 5/1917 ( 18-45) C. Conscriptions proved effective 1. w/in mths army incrsd from 200K to > 4 million; 400,000 African Am in segregated units 2. 1 st time women admitted to armed forces VIII. American Doughboys in WWI A. War at sea 1. 1917 German sank 6.5 tons of allied & US shipping 2. US began convoy system 7/1917; Br navy gave protection U-boat sinking fell dramatically

21 B. Communist Russias quick withdrawal from war eased Germanys eastern front 1. Germany re-deployed divisions to the Western front C. Americas Unknown War against Russia 1. 1917; Wilson secretly sent aid to White Russians fighting Bolsheviks 2. 6/1918 Wilson ordered naval blockade of Russia 3. Archangel expedition- 5000 troops to northern Russia control Russian munitions 4. 10,000 troops sent to Siberia 5. US involvement prolonged Russian civil war

22 6. incrsd Russian resentment of capitalist intervention 7. Wilson believed spread of communism greatest threat to peace D. Western Front 1918 1. spring 1918, Germany launched drive on western front 2. American Expeditionary Force enters the war a. composed of soldiers & marines under Gen. John J. Pershing 1 st only deployed in quiet sectors 3. Late May, 1918 Germany came w/in 40 mile of Paris

23 a. 30,000 US troops thrown into breach at Chateau-Thierry; the heart of German advance - Stopped advance counterattack at Belleau Wood - US exaggerated Americans saved Paris b. 7/1918 French & US troops went on the offensive in the 2 nd Battle of the Marne - beginning of German withdrawal c. 9/1918; 9 US divisions & 4 French divisions push Germans from St Mihiel - set stage for Allied offensive; 15,000 Germans captured

24 4. General John J. (Black Jack) Pershing headed a separate US army a. assigned 85 mile front along the Meuse river & through the Argonne Forest b. Pershings army undertook the Meuse-Argonne offensive from 9/1918-11/1918 -last Allied assault, largest battle for US, 1.2 million American; 10% casualties E. End of War 1. German allies deserting; British blockade causing critical food shortages 2. Germans surrender spurred by Wilsons 14 Point

25 a. Wilson demanded Kaisers removal before an armistice negotiated b. 11/11/1918 Germany surrendered F. Segregation in American Army 1. Blacks divided over support for the war- DuBois issued editorial in The Crisis supporting the war 2. 400,000 US black troops not allowed in victory parade in Paris in 1919 G. Casualties- ~10 mil soldiers on all sides 1. ~20 million civilian casualties -most from Russian Rev, 2. 112,432 American dead from battle & disease

26 IX. Wilson loses Congress at home A. Wilsons post-war popularity unprecedented B. Republicans regained a majority in Congress 1. Wilsons prestige diminished b/c unable to pull off a Democratic victory C. Wilson infuriated Republican senator by excluding them from peace delegation D. Wilsons 14 Points - made Wilson the moral leader of the Allied cause 1. Abolish secret treaties, freedom of the seas, remove economic barriers, reduction of armament 2. Adjust colonial claims, self-determination

27 14th point: International organization to supply collective security--> League of Nations X. Versailles Peace Conference 1/18/1919 A. Big Four; Wilson-US, D. Lloyd George-Britain, Georges Clemenceau- France, V. Orlando-Italy 1. Europeans did not embrace Wilsons idea; wanted punishment for Germany in the treaty B. Wilsons primary goal was a League of Nations 1. Compromise on self-determination- Mandates 2. Europeans supported League Covenant (Art 10) 3. 5 permanent members; US, Fr, Br, It, Japan -Germany & Russia excluded

28 C. Versailles Treaty 1. Art. 231 of the Treaty (war guilt clause) a. sole blame for WWI on Germany, reaprations to Allies = $31 billion in 30 years b. severe military restrictions & loss of territory 2. Self-determination to eastern Europe & Baltic states; failed in Africa & India 3. Treaty opposed by Congress a. Henry Cabot Lodge- safeguard MD, ?d LON b. Irreconcilables opposed LON in any form c. allied adversaries now had more power to bargain

29 D. Completion of treaty - delegates separated LON from the Treaty; 6/28/1919 signed in Hall of Mirrors 1. Germany felt betrayed- 4 of original 14 included XI. Defeat of Versailles Treaty A.Republican opposed treaty & wanted to amend it B. Wilson embarked on tour to gain public support-- > stroke C. Lodge Reservations- 14 formal reservations focusing on Art 10- which committed US troops to aid member nations- rejected by Wilson D. Treaty rejected in 1919/1920 E. Separate peace w/Germany 7/25/1921

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