Presentation on theme: "A Process for Developing Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum"— Presentation transcript:
1A Process for Developing Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum This presentation will probably involve audience discussion, which will create action items. Use PowerPoint to keep track of these action items during your presentationIn Slide Show, click on the right mouse buttonSelect “Meeting Minder”Select the “Action Items” tabType in action items as they come upClick OK to dismiss this boxThis will automatically create an Action Item slide at the end of your presentation with your points entered.Prioritizing and Mapping the Curriculum with the Learning-Focused ToolboxA Process for Developing Guaranteed and Viable CurriculumLEARNING-FOCUSED SOLUTIONS
2Curriculum What is it? What is it like? A path or course to run in small steps.Any document or plan that defines:the work of teachersthe content to be learned by the studentsthe methods to be used in the process.What is the Purpose?To focus and connect the work of classroom teachers in school to the standards, assessments and classroom practices in order to raise student achievement.CurriculumWhat isn’t it?This ‘Word Map’ explains what curriculum should be, as well as what it isn’t. Teachers need to know how we are defining curriculum before we approach the need for and the process of prioritizing the benchmarks & GLEs identified in the state’s standards.Curriculum is NOT the textbook or program you purchased from a publisher.Curriculum can no longer be what you’ve been doing for the past 15 years unless it is demonstrated to be in line with the standards and assessments!
3Why ‘Prioritize’ the Curriculum? Every state’s curriculum has far too many standards to be learned in the time availableIn the past, teachers have had to independently prioritize their curriculum - which has provided an uneven “taught” curriculum that results in inconsistent achievement.Make it clear to the teachers that it was an unreasonable expectation to expect that teachers prioritize the standards on their own without assistance. There should be no sense of ‘blame’.
4Why Prioritize the Curriculum? The prioritizing curriculum process provides the means to deal with this abundance of standards and limited time.Prioritizing the curriculum does not eliminate curriculum, but rather ‘codes the curriculum’.All teachers that teach a common grade or course, now will emphasize the same learning & understanding rather than emphasizing “coverage”!How teachers manage and plan the curriculum significantly impacts achievement.Fenwick English (1992) found that school districts that more fully concentrated time and resources on what he called ‘essential elements of the curriculum’ had much higher achievement.
5Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum “The single most important initiative a school or district can engage in to raise student achievement.”As referenced by Bob Marzano in his book:What Works In SchoolsThe prioritizing and mapping process that we did is the critical first step in attaining that goal. The development and use of a prioritized curriculum provides schools and educators with the ability to focus instruction that has the greatest impact on student learning and achievement.
6Guaranteed Curriculum EVERY STUDENT is provided the opportunity to learn a core curriculum which provides them with the probability of success in school.These next slides explain what Marzano means when he talks about the tremendous need for “guaranteed and viable curriculum”.
7Viable CurriculumSchools make sure that the necessary time is available and protected so students will be able to learn the guaranteed curriculum.
8Quality Curriculum:Provides teachers with a guide for what students need to learn in order to be successful.Prevents redundancies in instruction.Guards against gaps in student learning.We do not have the luxury to repeat what has already been taught & learned. There is too much content to be learned and understood. We also can not afford to create gaps that cause our students to experience failure and fall behind their peers. Quality curriculum guides us as we focus on student success.
9Quality CurriculumProvides a sequence of what needs to be learned across individual grade levels or courses as well as a vertical sequence from grade level to grade level or from course to course.Provides teachers with a correlation to the standards and assessments in an attempt to assure students are as well prepared as possible.Explain how one of the most powerful events of the prioritizing process occurred when teachers met in vertical teams (the grade before & after) to preview the prioritized benchmarks & GLEs to assure that they had eliminated gaps and redundancies.
10Organization-- Multiple Options for Acceleration-- Vertical AND Grade Level Teams-- Large Blocks of Time-- Literacy & Math BlocksExemplary Practices in High Achievement, High Accountability Districts and SchoolsAssessment-- Focus = Assessment for Learning-- Continuous Formative Assessment-- Benchmark Assessments That Direct Instruction-- Continuous Use of RubricsInstruction-- K- 12 Reading Comprehension-- K- 12 Writing in Content-- Advance Organizers, Scaffolding, Preview-- Differentiated Cognitive Strategies-- Schools With Instructional CoachesBackground:In 1996, the Pew Foundation and the US Dept. of Education created the Education Evaluation Consortium. Groups evaluated 1400 schools per year (700 Typical & 700 Exemplary Schools) and analyzed the data to determine the practices of exemplary schools. The above are the exemplary practices they noted.90/90 Schools = 90% of Students on or Above Grade Level & 90% of Students on Free/Reduced Meals (School Highly Impacted by Poverty)90/90/90 Schools = 90% on or Above Grade Level, 90% of Students on Free/Reduced Meals, 90% Students Are MinorityPlanning-- Priority, Time Allocated-- Data & Results Driven-- Team-Based Planning & Individual-- Linked to Staff DevelopmentCurriculum-- Prioritized Curriculum-- K-12 Benchmarks/Maps-- Unit Content Maps With Vocabulary Focus
11Best CurriculumThe highest quality curriculum is developed by utilizing a wide range of resources during the development and subsequent monitoring of the curriculum.StandardsBenchmarksPerformance objectives / GLEsAssessmentsTeacher experienceThe highest quality curriculum involves a range of resources that are used to determine what is essential and important for all students to know, understand and do at each grade level and in each course. Teachers work in teams and rely on their experiences with what students need to know to be successful on the state’s assessments. Is this teaching to the test? Not conclusively, but the focus is on making sure students are provided with the knowledge and skills to be successful on those assessments. This eliminates mystery learning! We owe it to our students to prepare them!
12Prioritizing Not all content is equal! Standards contain a range of performance objectives (benchmarks & GLEs).Some performance objectives are more important than others in helping students succeed!We need to determine where we need to place an emphasis because we don’t have enough time to teach all the benchmarks or GLEs with the same intensity!
13How did we do it? STEP 1Teachers prioritized the benchmarks & GLEs into Essential, Important and Compact categoriesEssential vs Important vs. CompactEssential = 50% of the Content & requires 70% of the Instructional TimeImportant = 30% of the Content & requires 25% of the Instructional TimeCompact = 20% of the Content & requires 5% of the Instructional Time
14DifferencesEssential refers to the “Big Ideas” or concepts that you want your students to understand at a greater depth.Important refers to the key knowledge and skills that lead to student understanding of the essential knowledge.Compact: refers to the less important stuff that students can usually get by without or will be acquired as a result of other instruction.
16Vertical TeamingAfter grade level teams and course teams prioritized their GLEs or benchmarks, they met in vertical teamsHere they reviewed & discussed their rationale for how they prioritized each GLE or benchmarkThey looked for redundancies and gaps before returning to their teams to make revisions
17STEP 2:Teachers clustered those benchmarks & GLEs in the three categories into topics that will be used to guide your instruction.Then they identified the concepts that are contained in each topicFor every topic, they created a Content Map including all the necessary elements
18Mapping in Toolbox Creating Content Map in Toolbox Printed or publishedversion of theContent Map
20Content Map Components KEY LEARNING: A full statement of what is essential for students to know and do, representing significant concepts key to understanding the content.ESSENTIAL QUESTION(S): Written as a thought provoking and engaging question about the content that provides a view of the ‘Big Picture’ and acts as the ‘Mental Velcro’ for students to make connections.Concepts: The ‘heart’ of the unit’s content.Concepts: ‘Big Ideas’ that connect the skills or knowledge to the overarching topic.Concepts: Nouns in the ‘Performance Objectives’ of each state’s standards.Lesson Essential Questions: Concept specific but link to & support unit EQ(s).Lesson Essential Questions: Frame the study of the topic & guide the learning. HOTSLesson Essential Questions: Used to activate & summarize key ideas.Explain what a useful tool a Lesson Essential Question can be. It can be utilized at the beginning of the lesson to activate thinking. Students work in collaborative pairs and try to predict an answer to the question. At the end of the lesson, the question is answered by students to demonstrate their knowledge.The Lesson Essential Question may take several days of instruction, modeling, guided practice and independent practice before students can respond successfully to the question.Vocabulary: Words that are critical and essential to understanding the content being taught.Vocabulary: Multiple meaning words & words that are easily misunderstood.Vocabulary: Words related to “Big Idea” concepts and skills being taught.
21Concept: Character Analysis Concept: Literary Analysis English Literature: 11th GradeInstructional Tools:Plays: Hamlet, Julius Caesar,MacbethConcepts of Shakespeareancharacterization, drama, & tragediesCompare / Contrast EssayPersuasive EssayKey Learnings: To define and understand the elements andcharacteristics of Shakespearean tragedy. Explore thetragic heroes in the Shakespearean tragedies and identifythe flaws, events, and influences that led to the tragedyof each hero.Unit Essential Questions: Why a tragedy?What are the characteristics of a Shakespearean tragedy?Concept: Character AnalysisConcept: Literary AnalysisConcept: Drama CharacteristicsLEQ(s):1. Why do we call them tragicheroes?2. What are the commoncharacteristics of WilliamShakespeare’s tragic heroes?LEQ(s):1. What are the literary elementsof a Shakespearean play?2. How do these elements worktogether to develop a tragedy?LEQ(s):1. How do Shakespeareandrama characteristicsenhance the portrayal ofthe tragic hero?Vocabulary:SettingCharacterizationThemePlot/ConflictImageryDramatic IronyVocabulary:MonologueSoliloquyAsideFoilCatastropheStagingVocabulary:ProtagonistIntellectualVirtuousAvengingFlawedAntagonist
228th Grade Social Studies: The Lewis and Clark Expedition Instructional Tools:Key Learning(s): Exploration is motivated by political,economic, scientific, & social factors. Individuals and theirvalues impact history. Patterns in one historical event canbe found in other historical events.Students will be able to:Primary SourcesTime LinePersuasive Writing GraphicPersuasive Writing RubricWord SplashUnit Essential Question(s):The Lewis and Clark Expedition: What’s the big deal?The Corps of DiscoveryMotivationSignificanceProcessesLesson EssentialQuestions:Lesson EssentialQuestions:Lesson EssentialQuestions:Constructing SupportAbstractingWhy did you send them, Thomas Jefferson?How can you support Jefferson’s decision?Who were they and why were they chosen?What were the contributions of the expedition?How can we find patterns in historical events?How is the Lewis and Clark Expedition like other events in history?Recall the content map is first step in creating a learning unit. It is the big picture of the unit – a picture of the content (concept and skills) that students are learning in this unit.Use the slide to point out the parts of the content map.Key Learning is major idea/concept you want students to learn. The broad understandings that a teacher wants students to carry with them over time.Unit essential question is a broad question that captures the Key Learning desired for the unit.The major concepts are based on the curriculum objectives.Lesson Essential questions (Acquisition Lessons) are created for each Major Concept.Key terms and phrases are listed for each LEQ.Talk about the use of the Content Map during the Launch of the unit.Point out the optional spot where teaches may place examples, steps, formulas if these are needed to complete the key learning in the unit.Vocabulary:Vocabulary:ExpeditionLouisiana PurchaseNorthwest PassageeconomicpoliticalcorpsadventurousleadershipteamworkperseveranceVocabulary:accomplishmentimpactsignificance
23How do we use multiplication? Real-Life Application Meaning Process Sample Content Map3rd Grade Math: MultiplicationInstructional Tools:Graph PaperMultiplication ChartsCalculatorReal Life Problems(finding area)Sequence Chart of StepsKey Learning: Multiplication is a more efficient wayof adding.Essential Question:How do we use multiplication?Real-LifeApplicationMeaningProcessLEQ(s):1. How can arrays help youunderstand multiplication?2. How is multiplicationrepeated addition?3. How can you use skipcounting to find a product?LEQ(s):1. How do you multiplyfactors to get a product?2. What patterns can helpyou remember themultiplication facts?3. How can we find errorsin multiplying?LEQ(s):1. Where ismultiplicationused in real-life?Vocabulary:arraysrepeatedproductdigitvalueVocabulary:factorsproductreversinglattice methodpatternserrorsVocabulary:large lotsbudgetingfinding areashoppingIndustry
24Writing Process (1st. Grade) Instructional Tools: Story Element Graphic Organizer Daily Journal Entries Word Maps & Categorized Word Walls Writing Samples Writing Process Check List Sequence Maps/Story BoardsKey Learning: Good writing enables us to “talk to” people.Essential Question: How can I become a good writer?Writing ProcessSimple StoryWriting GenresLEQ(s): (1) Where do ideas for writing come from? (2) How can a ‘writing map’ help me plan before I write? (3) How do I make sure what I write says what I mean/?LEQ(s):What would a good story look like?(2) What would happen if my story didn’t have a beginning or was missing an ending?LEQ(s):(1) How does the purpose affect the way I write?Vocabulary: editing writing process fix-up sloppy copy story map publishing CUPSVocabulary: poems journal writing lists information rhyming entertain story question/answerVocabulary: sentences characters illustration captions ending first beginning middle end finally setting story elements problem
25CONTENT MAPS: Why are they so important? Communication deviceConceptualize a unitEnable consistent curriculum pacing and planningBe sure to stress the importance of the content maps:Communication devices - use with students, parents and support teachers. Just think how parents will feel to know in advance what their students will be learning and how they can support this learning. Special needs teachers will know in advance what concepts & vocabulary they need to stress with students before classroom instruction.Conceptualize - keeps us focused on what needs to be taught and allows us to prepare teaching strategies in advance.Pacing & planning - assures that all the prioritized content is taught and learned.Highlights Vocabulary - we can raise student achievement 33% points by focusing on vocabulary instruction on key vocabularyWhen we use these maps with our students it eliminates ‘mystery learning’. Expectations are clear!Highlight important vocabularyEnable students to "see" the knowledge gained over time and their learning
26Step 3: Course MapTeachers estimated how much time should be spent on each topic and arranged them sequentially on a course mapThe goal of the course map is to assure that all the content is taughtRevisions are expected to be made to the content maps and to the course maps as teachers experience them.Remind teachers that this is a work in progress! Their feedback, as they use the maps to guide their instruction, will be incorporated during the revision period.It is not a ‘lock step’ expectation of what is taught when. The really important piece of this map is how time might be distributed to assure that ALL the content is taught.
27Pacing and Prioritizing Time Clicking on the Topicin the timeline opensthe Content Map forthe unit.
28Step 4: A Work In Progress Revise the priorities and edit the Content Maps as needed – based on current assessment data and experience.
29Benefits for Teachers… The instructional “WHAT” has been shared, making it quick and easy to develop plansMany instructional factors have been decided and developed for teachers, making their planning time much more efficientLessons are directly connected to the school/district prioritized curriculumPlanning and sharing with peers is easier and more efficient
30Benefits for Students… Mobility has much less impact on achievementInstruction is directly connected to what is testedConsistency of strategies and formats raises their performance
31How do you use your ‘Content Maps’? The ‘Content Maps’ are not meant to create more work for teachers but to act as guides as they plan instruction!In grade level/course teams, preview the maps and discuss what content you are already addressing in your instructional programAt this point, you can assess what needs to be add or delete from your current program to assure student success