4 Muhammad and His Message Born into family of nomadic bedouin herders/merchantsBecomes merchantAround 610 C.E. he undergoes spiritual transformtion. He is convinced that Allah is the only true deityClaims to have visions from Allah that are delivered through the archangel Gabriel.Belief/worship of other gods=wickedness and results in punishmentMuhammad was familiar with Christianity and Judaism
5 The Quran Muhammad starts off orally reciting his revelations Eventually followers began to write down his teachingsThese writings were compiled and became the Quran, the holy book of IslamServes as definitive authority for Islamic religious doctrine and social organization.
6 Muhammad’s Migration to Medina As Muhammad became more popular and started preaching the beliefs of Islam, which is monotheistic, he came into conflict with the leaders of Mecca who wanted to keep the polytheistic shrines which attracted pilgrimages, wealth.Muhammad was threatened so accompanied by his followers he fled to Medina.His journey later became known as the hijira.
7 Muhammad’s Migration to Medina continued… While in Medina Muhammad gained even more followersIn 630 he was able to return to Mecca and destroy all pagan shrines except for the Ka’aba which is one of the key parts of the Muslim pilgrimage
8 The 5 Pillars of IslamMuslims believe salvation is accomplished through submitting to the will of God through the 5 Pillars of Islam which are:-confession of faith-prayer 5 times a day-giving charity to the needy-fasting during Ramadan, which lasts for 1 month-making a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime
9 Other Elements of Islam Jihad, “to struggle”, is a guiding concept of Islam. Followers of Islam struggle to become better Muslims and struggle against non-believersIslam has similarities with Christianity and Judaism:-all 3 religions recognize Abraham, Moses, and Jesus as prophets, and agree that Muhammad was the last great prophet-Muslims and Christians believe that all people are equal under God and that all should be converted to Islam/Christianity
11 Leaders After Muhammad After Muhammad’s death Abu Bakr becomes caliphAs time went on the caliphs became like hereditary rulers, no clear line of successionUmayyad Dynasty is created after Hasan is pressured into giving up title as caliph
12 The Umayyad DynastyGreatly expands Islamic Empire-Northern Africa and SpainCharles Martel stops the dynasty from expanding into Europe, beyond the Iberian peninsulaControversies over succession began to emerge
13 Shi’ite (Shia)Believe that Ali, Muhammad’s son in law was the rightful heir to the empire based on the comments Muhammad made to him
14 SunniDon’t believe that Muhammad and his ancestors should be the automatic rulers.Believe that anyone with the ability should have the right to become leader
15 Umayyad DeclineConflict between Shi’ites and Sunnis led to the declineAbu al-Abbas, descendent of Muhammad, fought for control and defeated the Umayyad empireAbbasid Dynasty created about 750
16 Abbasid Empire Reigned 750-1258 C.E. until the Mongols took over Capital at BaghdadBuilt around trade-introduced idea of creditSteel produced-used for swordsMohammad al-Rhazi-publishes medical encyclopediaNoteworthy contributions in math-algebra
17 Abbasid Empire continued… Battle of the Talus River 751 C.E.-Muslims defeated T’ang Chinese and gained control of Silk Road trade postsLearned how to make paper money from Chinese POW’sBuilt libraries and universitiesMonopolized trade routesKept western traditions alive-ex. they translated the works of Plato and Aristotle into Arabic
18 ConversionMuslims tried to convert people to Islam but they were tolerant of other religionsSufis stressed personal relationships with Allah rather than ritualsMuslims were successful in converting people by allowing them to adapt Allah to their own beliefs and telling them to get to Allah in their own way
19 The Role of Women Viewed as property A man could divorce his wife and keep her dowryFemale infanticide
20 Changes Brought by the Quran Quran gave women some rights and said them to be equal in the eyes of AllahInfanticide forbiddenWomen gained influence within, and sometimes outside, the homeHowever Islamic society still patriarchal-women can only have one husband, men can have up to four wives
21 Decline of Islamic Caliphates Caused by international problems/civil wars between Sunnis and Shi’itesRebellions-mamluks establish capital at SmarraMongols defeat Islamic empire during crusadesDestruction of Baghdad=end of Abbasid DynastyRe-unification later comes in the form of the Ottoman Turks
22 Tying it all TogetherDespite all of the Islamic Empire’s international/foreign conflicts, the Dar al-Islam stood as a unifying factorDar al-Islam is continuity between all Islamic nations-ulama, qadis, and other missionaries worked to spread/promote the values of Islam, nations within it all experienced the impact of new crops, agricultural experimentation, and urban growthCultural traditions, worship of Muhammad, following of the Quran, and language are also similarities between the areas within the Dar al-Islam
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