3Levels of academic success 3Learns with satisfaction and joy (student is on the way to becoming a lifelong learner)2Earns high grades on assignments that challenge (completes assignments that require effort)1Gets good grades with ease (completes assignments with little effort)Julia Roberts in The Challenge, Summer, 2008
4Defining Underachievement Three General ThemesDiscrepancy between potential (ability) and performance (achievement)A regression involving potential and performanceFailure to develop potential or latent abilityWhat is underachievement? There is no universally agreed upon definition of underachievement. However, three general themes emerge. (Reis and McCoach, 2000)
5Defining Underachievement 1. Discrepancy between ability and achievementRequires defining ability.Requires defining achievement.Most commonly used method of defining ability involves the use of IQ tests such as the WISC-IV and the Stanford-Binet IV. But the percentile rank used as the criteria for defining giftedness varies from state to state. Some describe this as “geographic giftedness.” But no test is 100% reliable, so confidence intervals are used. WV’s is at the 68% confidence interval. Psychologists can never determine with 100% certainty a student’s true score (Reis and McCoach, 2000).Then we have the problem of defining achievement. Standardized achievement tests can be used, but they also are not completely reliable and subject to errors of measurement of the criterion. Also, the correspondence between the state’s adopted curriculum and the standardized test is usually imperfect.If one uses performance in the classroom defined by course grades, it is impossible to compare grades across subject areas or even across students because of the variability in content and presentation by different teachers. Grades are not standardized across the state or even across a county school district.
6Defining Underachievement 2. Discrepancy between predicted achievement and actual achievementIf a student performs more poorly on measures of achievement than one would expect based on measures of ability, then he or she is underachieving.A smaller number of authors use this definition. A lesser used definition.For example, a student scored at the 97th percentile on a comprehensive test of intelligence, but performs at mastery or below on the state’s standardized achievement test (WESTEST). Again, neither the standardized achievement test nor the intelligence test is 100% accurate.
7Defining Underachievement 3. Failure to develop or utilize latent potential without reference to other external criteria.No attempt to define or measure potential. Underachievers viewed as individuals who fail to self-actualizeDifficult to define this. Dr. Sylvia Rimm (1997) believes that if students are not working to their ability, even if they are making As in class work, then they are underachieving. This definition could include most gifted students.
8Defining Underachievement Discrepancy definition requires defining ability and achievementAbility: IQ test: WISC-IV or Stanford-Binet IV. Criteria for giftedness? Achievement: Standardized Tests - 1 year below grade level? Should gifted students be above grade level? Classroom grades – failing grades? Time Period: Any drop over a short time period? Achievement that has declined 3 years in a row?“Criteria for identifying gifted underachievers should include a method for determining observable discrepancies between ability and achievement.” (Reis and McCoach, 2000). In order to do this, we must define ability and achievement.Testing ability is problematic. No test is 100% reliable. Difference in scores arise as a result of sampling errors, student mood and health, environmental influences, and personal experiences.Errors of measurement, psychologists can never determine with 100% certainty a student’s “true” score. So, they use confidence levels.Testing achievement is even more problematic. Using a test presents the same problems as the IQ test. However, they are more standardized than classroom grades. Classroom grades, though unreliable and teacher dependent, are used more often as a measure of classroom performance. However, it is impossible to compare grades across subject areas or even across students because of the variability in content and presentation, different teachers’ curricular emphases, grading policies, and assessments.
9defining underachievement Type and SeverityChronic? Episodic - temporary, situational? Mild?Moderate? Severe?In all areas?In only some areas? Coincidental with increased homework?
10Defining Underachievement Working definition:Underachievers are students who exhibit an observable discrepancy between expected achievement (as measured by a comprehensive test of cognitive or intellectual ability and actual achievement (as measured by class grades, teacher evaluations or standardized achievement tests).Must NOT be the result of a diagnosed learning disability and must persist over a one year period.Although imperfect, this is the definition that we will work with today.“Ideally, the researcher would standardize both the predictor and the criterion variables and would identify as underachievers those students whose actual achievement is at least one standard deviation below their expected achievement level.” (Reis and McCloud, 2000). Any system of defining underachievement should include students whose classroom performance falls significantly below their standardized test performance.For gifted, exhibit superior scores on measures of achievement and who actual achievement is at least one standard deviation below their expected achievement level. In reality, the standardization of classroom grades may be neither feasible nor meaningful.May consider classroom grades, but must also be at least 1 standard deviation below as measured by a standardized achievement test. Grades are not standardized across different schools, different teachers. The student may be making failing grades but be at or above grade level achievement. A student may read extensively but fail to complete mundane homework assignments. Is this underachievement or a personal decision to use time wisely.
11Identifying underachieving gifted Special PopulationsDistinguish between a chronic underachiever and a gifted student who has processing deficits, learning disabilities or attention deficits.Interventions that are appropriate for these subgroups are radically different.High ability students can have learning problems or attention deficits of various types that affect or cause underachievement.Need to distinguish between a chronic underachiever and a gifted student who has processing deficits, learning disabilities, or attention deficits is crucial because the interventions that are appropriate for these subgroups are radically different. (Reis and McCloud, 2000)
12Identifying underachieving gifted The non-compliantThe working-hard-at-being-differentThe challenging-authorityThe angry/discouraged/frustratedThe social/nonsocialThe divergent “outside of the box” thinkerThe complex
14Underlying causes Social Factors Peer influences? Socio-economic factors? (Not an “achievement environment”)Gender?The only thing a child can control?Few professional jobs that require higher education in the area.
15Underlying Causes Individual Factors Problems with competition? Passive resistance?Hypersensitivity/intensity?Low cause/effect ability?Inability to delay gratification?Low self-esteem?Dominant or dependent personality?Developmental arrest? (leading to internal conflict)Early power and attention (the only thing he/she can control?)Perfectionism? (Yes, perfectionism)Hypersensitivity –To developmental transitionsTo family transitions (moves, other events)Response to stressTo grief/loss - depressionChanging relationshipsResponse to classroom, teachers, curriculum, justice/fairness, cruelty to othersDominant personality – If can’t be the best, dominant over others, then don’t even try or belittle the activity.Dependent personality – Always someone else’s fault.
16Underlying causes Family Factors Lack of home enrichment No educational valuesAnti-school attitude Do not value education.
18Underlying causes The Function for the Child Helps a peripheral parent to be involvedRepresents loyalty to someoneDistracts parents fighting w/each other or contributes to the fightingCan help to unify parents to work with each otherCan communicate distress about a transition or event or circumstanceCan help to involve outside help/open up a “closed” family by engaging othersThe child becomes a handy “other” for family to focus on.
19Underlying causes Family Factors: The “Family Dance” The "peripheral parent"-allies with child Parent(s) live(s) through the child Parent hostile to the child who "mirrors" them Parent protects child against "ogre" Parent threatened by "achievement" Parents model anti-school attitudes "Achievement" theme dominates family Parents' success "paralyzes" childHigh expectations generate rebellion The peripheral parent allies with the child to become involved or not involved.Parents model emotional distance. Cannot give emotional support.Finally, when the child is old enough, the child may realize that their underachievement was a symptom of parental issues, but by then it may be too late. The damage was done. Through counseling, the child may be helped to realize the function of his underachievement.
20Underlying causes Culturally Diverse Achievement defined differently Attitude-achievement paradoxMinority language backgroundDifferent value systemsLow expectationsInequity in educational opportunitiesIntimidated by majority cultureSometimes an attitude achievement paradox; they report positive attitudes toward education, yet they evidence poor academic achievement; low expectations for themselves.
21Underlying causes School Factors If no "environment for learning“ If low expectations If no differentiation (interests/abilities) If no support for special needs of childIf no support for teacher If teacher hostile or indifferent If focus is on weaknesses If curriculum inappropriate If experiences negative If inflexible methods If poor rapport with parent(s)
22Two categories: Interventions Counseling Instructional Research on effective intervention models remains scarce. Although there have been many case studies and articles, few actually use an experimental design. This may be because there would be ethical issues in using a control group and withhold treatment that would be valuable for underachieving gifted students.Interventions aimed at reversing gifted underachievement fall into two general categories: counseling and instructional interventions (Reis and McCloud, 2000)
23Counseling Interventions Goal is to help the student decide whether achievement is a desirable goal.If so, then help reverse counterproductive habits and cognitions.
24What to Avoid Giving advice "That's nothing to be upset about." "Fixing" them Giving advice "That's nothing to be upset about." "You have no reason to feel that." "Don't you think it would be better if..." "When I was your age..." "Rescuing" them Ignoring them Being angry at their underachievement Being overly invested in their achievement Being so invested in them emotionally that the ability to help, affirm them is lost
25Counseling Underachievers Helping them become "unstuck" Not judging, criticizing Focusing on strengths, reframing Helping them "make sense" of themselves, their situation Helping them "live more effectively" Working on empowerment Helping them "be selfish" in the system Standing beside them
26Counseling Underachievers Change family communication Alter family roles Help parents understand self, child Create an appropriate hierarchy Clarify personal boundaries Help strengthen family leadership "Be selfish-get what you need from the system."
27Counseling Underachievers Help family adjust to change Help all members feel heard, affirmed Help all members affirm strengths Raise awareness of parental messages Help parents "give permission" to achieve Identify parent vs. child needs Raise awareness of developmental issuesNormalize family transitionsEmpower the underachiever-in new ways
28Counseling Parent and teachers together “can adjust home and school environments to compensate for social impacts and can thus foster achievement within their children.”Sylvia B. Rimm, Ph.D. Underachievement Syndrome Causes and Cures (1995)Why Gifted Kids Get Poor Grades and What You Can Do About It (2008) Great Potential PressA parent or teacher alone is likely to have little effect on the overall societal conditions, but together…they can adjust home and school environments…and can thus foster achievement within their children.
29Counseling Underachievers What can parents and educators do?Don’t rescue the child from a challenge. Instead support him/her.Help find and support interests outside of school as well as in school that motivate and develop a work ethic.Advocate for continuous progress and excellence at various levels of decision–making.Julia RobertsThe first step is to support the child if she finds that a rigorous class takes hard work and time. Do not rescue a child from the challenge but support her in successfully reaching high academic standards.Help a child find interests in and outside of school and then encourage those interests. Deep interests and passions motivate young learners and promote lifelong learning.Advocate for continuous progress and excellence at various levels of decision-making at school and district levels. No one reaches excellence without hard work and persistence.
30COUNSELING GIFTED UNDERACHIEVERS Jean Sunde Peterson, Ph.D. Purdue University
31Counseling GIFTED underachievers WHAT TO BE ALERT TO* Depression * Suicidal ideation ("Should I worry about you--that you'll hurt yourself?") * Thoughts of violence * Our own feelings about achievement * Responding only with a punitive approach * Having only a simplistic view of a very complex, idiosyncratic phenomenon * Questioning whether they are "gifted" (teacher, child, counselor, parent)
32COUNSELING GIFTED UNDERACHIEVERS INITIALLY…*Alert to, but not preoccupied with, pathology *Active listening, reflecting; credible feedback *Collaborative--client active *Alert to themes, patterns, strengths, personal resources *"Make sense" of emotions *Here-and-now focus
33COUNSELING GIFTED UNDERACHIEVERS THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING “KNOWN” and APPRECIATEDAs a child, adolescent As a complex individual As more than "achiever," "underachiever" As a son, daughter As worth the attention As having intelligence
34Counseling GIFTED underachievers REFRAMING PROBLEMS"It took hard work to get our (or someone else's) attention." "You're a survivor.""You were smart enough to talk to someone.""You had the courage not to achieve.""Underneath you were very concerned about your parents.""It makes sense that you learned to manipulate people."
35COUNSELING GIFTED UNDERACHIEVERS FORMULATING AN APPROACH*Specific problem to be solved? (Brief, solution-focused approach) *Multi-modal? (longer involvement) *Goal: More effective living
36COUNSELING GIFTED UNDERACHIEVERS FORMULATING A TREATMENT PLANIf brief, solution-focused: relationship is important.Ask "Miracle-question" early. “What would your life look like…?” Explore how client could make problem bigger/smaller; ask who will notice change.Invite client to determine one small, concrete, feasible step toward more effective living (i.e., lessening the problem) and a definite time to make the step.
37FLEXIBLE PLAN FORMULATING A TREATMENT PLAN * If systems approach: determine whether individual only or individual and family determine whether brief, solution-focused *If long term: collaboratively prioritize presenting issues, probably first working with the one with the best prospects of change or the one most critical to well-being
38COUNSELing gifted underachievers COUNSELOR ATTITUDES/BIASES*Self-reflecting re: biases, attitudes, & stereotypes related to giftedness*Being able to be poised, comfortable, and secure when working with gifted persons*Being able to refrain from "putting them in their place" or one-upping them with humor or expertise*Recognizing that gifted individuals may feel inept, inferior, uncomfortable--as well as guilty about gifts, power, attention.
39Counseling Underachievers Recognize/Affirm Resilience to Foster Hope Good problem-solving skills An ability to gain attention from others An optimistic view of their experiences A positive vision of a meaningful life A proactive perspective Role models outside of the home--"buffers" Positive self-concept Don't blame self for family problems Don't feel responsibility for fixing family Social support Intelligence
40Instructional Interventions Part-time or full-time special classrooms for giftedSmaller student/teacher ratiosLess conventional teaching strategies/ learning activitiesAffective educationMost well known educational interventions for gifted student have established either part-time or full-time special classrooms for gifted underachievers.In these classrooms, educators strive to create a favorable environment for student achievement by altering the traditional classroom organization. Usually, a smaller student/teacher ratio exists, teachers create less-conventional types of teaching and learning activities, teachers give students some choice and freedom in exercising control over their atmosphere, and students are encouraged to utilize different learning strategies.
41Students who achieve A’s based on what they have already learned are gaining daily practice in underachievement.Linda Silverman, “Do Gifted Students Have Special Needs?Julia Roberts (The Challenge, Summer 2008) KentuckyWhy should a parent or educator care or be concerned as long as a child makes good grades even if challenged is absent from the picture? Underachievement sets in early when children are allowed to acquire high grades with little effort. To complicate the situation, underachievement is difficult to reverse. The first level of academic success is equated with “easy.” In fact, one danger is that the child with a history of good grades for easy work will doubt his ability when school work is not easy and effort is required. An individual’s definition of academic success will shape what she does in school and the academic goals that she sets - likely, transferring to many other aspects of her life. If a particular definition for academic success is “good enough now” will it be tomorrow?
42Instructional Interventions More parental involvement Specific teacher Curriculum changesOpportunities to pursue of topics of interestInvolvement in extracurricular activitiesRimm says that without parental support, unlikely that teachers will affect change.
43Interventions - Instructional Renzulli’s Enrichment Projects5 Features:Relationship with the teacherUse of self-regulation strategiesOpportunity to investigate topics related to underachievementOpportunity to work on an area of interest in a preferred learning styleTime to interact with an appropriate peer groupCurriculum CompactingUsing Renzulli’s Type III Enrichment Projects, investigations showed some positive gains in either behavior or achievement during the course of the school year. 11 of the 17 participants showed improved achievement; 13 of the 17 students appeared to exert more effort within their classes; and 4 of the 17 students showed marked improvement in their classroom behavior.Curriculum compacting lets students get credit for knowledge and skills and buys time to pursue more challenging content or interest-based enrichment opportunities rather than more of the same.
44FOCUSING ON AFFECTIVE CONCERNS *Discussion Group for inclusion, support, comfort in school * Sending messages of strength: "You'll do what you need to when you're ready" (i.e., development!) "You'll figure out how to get what you need." "You have courage." "You are a sensitive person." " You're working at figuring out who you are---early!" *Avoiding messages re:"defective" *Resisting the urge to "fix" them *Affirming them as they are *Achievement not the most outstanding aspect *Nonjudgmental Renzulli also included affective instruction in his Enrichment Projects.
45Interventions MOTIVATION Extrinsic - Values the reward or outcome; not the activity itself.Intrinsic – Enjoys the activity itself. Neither too easy nor too difficult. (Computer games)Self-confidence – Believes that he/she has the skills to be successful.Safety – Trusts the environment. Expects to be able to achieve in it.The student values the outcome. It may be the grade. It may be that the student sees the utility of the task that is integral to his vision of the future. Help the student to see beyond the immediate activity to the long-term benefits it produces. Be able to answer the common question “Why do we have to study this?” In planning lessons, think about the Big Idea and Essential Questions that will be answered by the lessons or unit.Help students set short- and long-term goals. For younger children-short-term goals. For older students, long-term goals such as college scholarship, acceptance into a prestigious university, or a rewarding occupation. Help them to set short-term attainable goals and reward themselves once those goals are completed. Help student learn self-monitoring skills. Practice delayed gratification. As soon as I complete this homework, I will watch TV. Do the less preferred activity before the preferred activity. Example, doesn’t like to write, but likes to develop a photo story-board. Divide large tasks into small tasks and recognize performance at each step. Help set realistic expectations.Invite parents, community members into class to share how they have used various skills that they learned in school.Learn about the student’s interests and integrate into instruction whenever possible.Whenever possible, offer choices in how they learn and show mastery of the material.Plan activities that are just above the student’s skill range.One reason computer games are popular is that there is immediate feedback. Build opportunities for immediate feedbackHelp them to recognize past accomplishments. Success breeds success. Videotape students as they are engaged in school work. Periodically review the recordings to help the students realize how much they have improved. Keep samples of previous academic work and periodically review to show growth and improvement. Student portfolios promote this sort of self-reflection. (WebTop – Need for present-levels) Help them to chart progress.
46Motivation Tips Interventions Compliment the skill Compliment specificsBe genuine in complimentsA general compliment, such as “Good work,” does not tell the student anything. It does not let the student know what skill they displayed. Specifics such as “ You have learned to provide very good supporting sentences for the topic sentence in your paragraphs.” Or “Your beginning sentence really grabs the reader.”Be genuine. No undue praise. This diminishes trust.
47Environment Interventions Performance orientation – innate abilitiesMastery orientation - acquired abilitiesDweck (1999) found that students in elementary gravitate to one or the other orientation.Performance orientation. Students who believe that abilities are innate. That abilities are fixed. They view any mistake as evidence that they lack ability. Gifted students often develop a performance orientation. They believe that gifted is innate, and they had very little to do with their giftedness. They may have taught themselves to read or learned to read easily at an early age, but they still learned to read. Gifted students need to realize that the talents they possess are acquired that that they are capable of further developing these talents. In fact, some of these students may view peers who work hard at school as less intelligent.Mastery orientation. Student who believe that abilities are acquired. That they can improve their existing skills. More likely to tackle difficult tasks.Gifted student need to realize that the skills they possess are acquired and that they are capable of further developing these talents.Fine line to walk. The balancing factor is to acknowledge ability while recognizing that effort went into its development.Balance between acknowledging ability while recognizing that effort went into its development.
48Environment Interventions Friendly intellectual environment Engaging instructionFair systemSome teachers are threatened by the presence of gifted students in the classroom. The teacher must be involved in the process. If the teacher being asked to change is not involved in the process, then there is little that you can do to effect change in the environment.Student complaints such as “The teacher doesn’t understand” should be heeded. They may or may not be accurate. If they are, then try to change the environment. If not, help the student understand their misperception. If the problem is at home, the parents must be involved in the process. If no parent involvement or support, there is little a teacher can do to achieve change.Cultural and economic factors may limit students’ opportunities. Students’ perceptions about the “system” or society in general may affect their motivation. Discuss with students the obstacles they believe are keeping them from doing well and what options exists. What is in the student’s control and what is beyond his/her control. Teach about different viewpoints and different perspectives. Sometimes just listening to their concerns may help resolve their issues.
49QUESTIONS FOR EDUCATORS AND SCHOOL COUNSELORS TO PONDER * Is academic achievement the most important thing? * What do we tell parents, teachers, and coaches who are wringing their hands over an underachiever? * How can we explain that the phenomenon is so idiosyncratic and complex that a single approach or intervention is not likely to be effective? * How can we apply an appropriately systemic perspective? * How can we convey respect? Non-judgment?
50QUESTIONS FOR EDUCATORS AND SCHOOL COUNSELORS TO PONDER * How can we be embrace underachievers in programs? * How can we stop "being like every other adult" in how we approach non-performing gifted kids? * How can we avoid predicting the future on the basis of one developmental stage?
51COnclusionsNeed for clear, precise definition of gifted underachievement.Further research and inquiry into interventions.
52Sources*Reis, S. and McCoach, D.B.; The Underachievement of Gifted Students: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go? National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC), Gifted Child Quarterly Summer 2000 Vol. 44, No. 3, pp*Rimm, Sylvia B. “Underachievement Syndrome: Causes and Cures.” Apple Publishing Company. Sixth Printing, April (2008 now available at Great Potential Press.)
53Sources*Roberts, Julia (2008, Summer) Multiple Ways to Define Academic Success: What Resonates With You? The Challenge, 21,*Peterson, Jean Sunde, Ph.D. Responding To Underachievement 2007 NAGC Convention, CD-ROM, Purdue University
54Sources*Seeley, K.: Gifted Talented Students at Risk. Focus On Exceptional Children, Vol. 37, N0. 4, December *Siegle, D. and McCoach, D. B. “Making a Difference: Motivating Gifted Students Who Are Achieving” TEACHING Exceptional Children, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp Copyright 2005 CEC.