Next Generation Science / Common Core Standards Addressed! CCSS.ELA Literacy. RH.11 ‐ 12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem. CCSS.ELA Literacy. RS T.11 ‐ 12.3 Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.
Bell Work / Student Objectives 1. Define floral design. 2. List the principles of floral design. 3. Explain the concept of proportion. 4. Explain how the concept of balance is applied to floral design. 5. Describe how rhythm is applied in floral work. 6. Explain how the principles of dominance and focal point are used in floral design.
Interest Approach Take a look at the design to the right. Why does this arrangement look so good? Would you do anything to improve it? Now look at the next two designs. What’s wrong with them? How could you make them better?
What Is Floral Design? Floral design is the art of organizing the design elements inherent in plant materials and accessories according to the principles of design art. It is commonly called floral arranging. People who arrange flowers are called floral designers. These people have spent many hours mastering the art and design principles.
What Are the Principles of Design and How Are They Used? Principles of design are the rules and guidelines used by floral designers to create floral arrangements. There are four major design principles : proportion, balance, rhythm and dominance Radiation, repetition, transition, variation, contrast and focal point are minor principles.
How Is Proportion Achieved in Floral Design? The design must be in proportion to where it is going to be displayed It must be suitable for and in harmony with its location For example, a small bud vase of flowers would be inappropriate on a church altar Also, a huge basket of flowers would not be in proportion on a small coffee table
The height of an arrangement should be 1 1/2 to 2 times the height or width of the container The height may be increased depending on room dimensions and material types
Containers are a primary factor in determining height Consider: Physical dimensions Color Material & texture Shape A darker vase can visually hold a larger arrangement than a clear glass vase.
Flowers and foliage of equal or nearly equal size will help in achieving proper proportion For example, orchids should not be mixed with baby’s breath
What Is Balance and How Is It Achieved? There are two types of balance: Physical = actual stability of the arrangement The arrangement can stand freely and won’t fall over Visual = refers to the perception of the arrangement being balanced; Should be evident from top to bottom, side to side and front to back Designs not balanced will look out of sorts like a crooked painting on a wall
There are two types of visual balance Symmetrical balance - having equal numbers of plant materials on both sides of a central axis Round, fan, triangle and the inverted T are examples of symmetrical design forms Asymmetrical balance - having unequal placement of plant materials and weight of materials on each side of the central axis Hogarth curve, crescent, diagonal and right triangles are example of asymmetrical design forms
Balance can be achieved through the following methods: 1. Visual weight - a flower’s perceived lightness or heaviness based on its color, shape and pattern Varying visual weight helps achieve the compensation or counterbalancing in asymmetrical designs Lighter colors should be used towards the top and sides; Darker ones towards the bottom and center
2. Designers use three main techniques to help achieve balance: A) visual weight= a flower’s perceived lightness or heaviness based on its shape, color and pattern Varying visual weight helps achieve the counterbalancing in asymmetrical arrangements Light colors towards top and sides; Darker towards bottom and center B) centering= the technique of placing dominant plant material along a design’s central vertical axis
C) counterbalancing= means balancing plant materials on one side of a design with visually equal materials on the opposite side It is essential in asymmetrical work Can be used to avoid strict mirror imaging in symmetrical work
How Is Rhythm Created in a Floral Design? Creating a pathway for the eye to follow is the purpose of rhythm An arrangement with good rhythm will cause the viewer to look at the entire piece Two types: A) regular, repeated rhythm – present when materials are repeated at regular intervals from top to bottom in the arrangement
B) free, variable rhythm- is an unstructured style with subtle flowing movements created with unstructured materials There are five ways to achieve both free and regular rhythm
Ways of Creating Rhythm Radiation Stems radiate out naturally from the container; looks like spokes on a wheel. Repetition Repeating design elements throughout an arrangement including, but not limited to color, shape, space & lines. Transition Change from one material to another; should be smooth & gradual, such as in color changes. Variety Diverse assortment of differing components in a design; focuses attention & stimulates interest. Contrast Describes objects that have striking differences beyond mere variety or diversity, taking variety to a higher degree.
What Is Dominance and How Is Focal Point Used to Create It? The use of dominance suggests to the viewer what is important in a design Interest and attention are captured when one feature dominates and others are secondary Can be achieved by: 1) using dominant plant material 2) using an emphasized design element 3) using a distinct style of design
4) using a theme 5) using a focal point Focal point is the center of interest Not all arrangements have a focal point For example, round arrangements There are several ways to create a focal point
Ways of Creating a Focal Point Use of large flowers there Ex. Football mum Use of special form flowers Ex. Orchid Employing dark shades Vary concentration of plant material Use of framing methods Ex. Curved lines as in crescent shape Use of strong color contrasts Radiation of plant material to a particular area Use of accessories
Summary What is floral design? Name the four major design principles. What is focal point? Explain the proportional rule of “1 ½ to 2 times.” Where should heavy colors go? Light colors? How is physical balance different from visual balance? What is the difference between symmetrical and asymmetrical balance?
Summary Continued Describe how radiation can create rhythm. What is usually repeated in a design to create rhythm? What is dominance? And how can it be achieved? Name two ways of creating a focal point.