An Instructional Design Model Kelly M. Hanley Northwestern State University ETEC 5760 041.ETEC.5760.021 Spring 2004 firstname.lastname@example.org
Defining Instructional Design: The process through which an educator determines the best teaching methods for specific learners in a specific context, attempting to obtain a specific goal. -Walter Dick and Lou Carey
Model Developers: Walter Dick and Lou Carey A non-linear learning model that provides for objective-based instruction to students. Educators have the freedom to design their instruction so that they may cross the 6 steps of the learning model.
Step 1: Assess Instructional Needs Your curriculum guides and benchmarks will be your most logical starting point. They can also help you answer: 1. Who are your students? 2. What prior subject knowledge do you expect these students to have? 3. What are your instructional objectives?
Step 2: Analyze Learners The students cum folders and documentation records from the previous teachers will be a big help to you here. They can also help you answer these questions: 1. What are your students learning styles? 2. How have you students socioeconomic circumstances affected their academic performance? 3. What are your students ages, races, and primary language?
Step 3: Write Learning Objectives Objectives must be clear and specific to what the learner will be able to accomplish at the end of the instructional period. Some things to keep in mind: 1. Your test items should come from your objectives. 2. Know what your activity goals are. 3. Know what you want your students to be able to demonstrate. 4. Objectives are written from skill and task performances.
Step 4: Select Instructional Strategies Educators may borrow elements of R. Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction to organize those teachable moments. 1. Gain Attention- getting a students full focus is half the battle. 2. Inform Learners of Objectives- tell the students what they are going to learn today. 3. Stimulate Recall to Prior Learning- connect todays lesson to one from past learning experiences.
Step 4: Select Instructional Strategies Continued 4. Present the Content- teach your skills. 5. Provide Learner Guidance- examples, examples, and more examples. 6. Elicit Learner Guidance- let it be a student lead question and answer period ending with assigned homework. 7. Provide Feedback- teachers will interact with their students on an individual basis or in a cooperative group setting.
Step 4: Select Instructional Strategies Continued 8. Assess Learning- test time! 9. Enhance Retention and Transfer- educators will re-teach the skill or add an enrichment skill that will enhance the learning situation.
Step 5: Develop Materials In this step educators need to be mindful of budgetary concerns, what will be age-appropriate for their students, reliable and up-to-date resources, and what modifications will be needed for all students to have success with the learning experience. Examples of materials would be: 1. textbooks 2. pre/post tests 3. worksheets 4. computer-based instructional learning 5. audio/visual aids 6. manipulatives
Step 6: Evaluate Instruction An educator must be able to evaluate his/her lesson plan for what worked and what didnt. This is not a conclusion made from the students assessment! Ways to evaluate: 1. Keep a reflection journal. 2. Ask for a co-workers input. 3. Ask for your principals input.
Resources Broderick, Curtis L. (2001). Instructional Systems Design: What its all about. Retrieved February 4, 2004, from http://www.geocities.com/ok_bcurt/ISDallabout.htm Elements of Instruction. (2003). Retrieved February 4, 2004, from http://www.ion,illinois.edu/IONresources/instructionalDesign/instruction.asp Reference Guide for Instructional Design and Development. (2002). Retrieved February 4, 2004, from http://www.ieee.org/organizations/eab/tutorials/refguide/mms01.htm