Presentation on theme: "THE PROCESSES OF INSTRUCTION. Back in 1965, Robert Gagne detailed a nine-step instructional process that many teachers, trainers, and instructional designers."— Presentation transcript:
THE PROCESSES OF INSTRUCTION
Back in 1965, Robert Gagne detailed a nine-step instructional process that many teachers, trainers, and instructional designers still use today when creating their learning events. The steps are not meant to be absolute rules, but they do provide a good place to start during the creation process. 1. Gain Attention – In the beginning of any training course, it is helpful to present a new problem or scenario to pique the interest of the audience and to grab their attention. (Ex. Story)
2. Describe the Objective - After you have gained the attention of the learners, you need to inform them about what they will be able to accomplish, and how they will use the new knowledge they are about to gain. The key here is to make it relevant to them. If it makes something in their lives easier, then let them know. 3. Stimulate Recall of Prior Knowledge – Remind the learners of related information or knowledge that they already have to help them build on previously gained knowledge and skills. This helps the anxiety people naturally feel when they sense that something is going to “change” from what they previously have known.
4. Present the Material – Once items one to three have been established, you can present the material. Use various methods, like text, videos, images, sounds, and simulations. Present the material in small chunks so as to avoid information overload. 5. Provide Learner Guidance – Provide guidance strategies like case studies, apologies, and mnemonic devices to help learners store the new information in their long-term memories.
6. Elicit Performance (Practice) - Allow the learner to practice the new skill or behavior they are learning. This provides an opportunity for learners to confirm their understanding, and even to feel in a safe environment. 7. Feedback – Provide learners with specific and immediate feedback when they are practicing the new skill or behavior they have learned. Explain in detail the concept to those who are not as quick at picking it up
8. Assess Performance – After ample practice has been given, test the learners to determine if the lesson has indeed been learned. 9. Enhance Retention & Transfer – Provide the learners with additional practice and materials (job aids, quick reference guides, additional tests) so that they may review the material on their own time at a later date.
The Instructional Design Process
1.Instructional Design Goals and Objectives This is where you develop your blueprint for the instruction. What is it you want your students to learn? How will you break your instruction apart into pieces so you can be sure your students have learned what they need? At this stage in the process, it is often beneficial to meet with one or more instructional designers to determine your goals and objectives.
2. Determine Assessment Procedures Based on your objectives, you should be able to quickly and easily determine how to assess your students. 3. Design the Instruction Now that you know exactly what you want to teach, you can design the instruction. Many people storyboard their instruction before they actually develop it. A storyboard is a visual layout of the instruction, a sort of "pencil and paper" rough draft of the real thing.
4. Develop the Instruction This is the stage where the storyboards are "brought to life" on the computer. This is also the stage where the most technical expertise is required, and many projects bring in programmers or multimedia developers to assist. However, it is a good idea to collaborate with your developers and instructional designers at earlier stages so that they can suggest technologies which can enhance your design the most.
5. Pilot-Test the Instruction Now try out the instruction on some students, even if it is still in rough form. Listen to their feedback, and try to work their suggestions into revisions. 6. Deliver the Instruction
REFERENCES: Ferriman, J. (2013). 9-Step Instructional Process that Just Works. Learning & Collaboration Blog. works/ Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O., (2001). The Systematic Design of Instruction (5th ed.). New York: Addison-Wesley, Longman.