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Duane L. Pierson, Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas www.spaceflight.nasa.gov Microbiological Risks Associated With Spaceflight.

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Presentation on theme: "Duane L. Pierson, Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas www.spaceflight.nasa.gov Microbiological Risks Associated With Spaceflight."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Duane L. Pierson, Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas www.spaceflight.nasa.gov Microbiological Risks Associated With Spaceflight

3 MICROBIOLOGY MISSION STATEMENT Our mission is to enable human exploration and habitation of space through a better understanding of microbes and human–microbe interactions in the space environment. MAJOR FOCUS: RISK MITIGATION SPACE FLIGHT OPERATIONS OPERATIONAL BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH REQUIREMENTS ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING CREW DIAGNOSTICS FOOD ANALYSIS CREW TRAINING DATABASE INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK (HOST-MICROBE INTERACTION) SPACE FLIGHT GROUND-BASED

4 Infectious Diseases Allergies Plant Diseases Material Degradation Immune Alteration Volatile Release Food Spoilage Environmental Contamination Toxin Production ADVERSE EFFECTS OF MICROORGANISMS

5 PREVENTIVE MEASURES Acceptability standards – (air, surfaces, water, and food) Preflight assessment –Crew –Environment –Payload biosafety assessment In-flight environmental monitoring –Air:Microbial Air Sampler –Surfaces:Surface Sampler Kit –Water:Water Microbiology Kit

6 STS MISSION PROFILE PREFLIGHT IN-FLIGHT POSTFLIGHT ACTIVITIES Microbiology Viral Serology Food Analysis Orbiter Evaluation Crew Evaluation Orbiter Water L-90 L-30 L-2 R+0 L-40 Servicing L-15 L-2R+0

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9 CFU /m 3 3 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 FD12 MiddeckFlight Deck Spacelab FD1 MiddeckFlight Deck Spacelab FD6 MiddeckFlight Deck Spacelab BacteriaFungi AIR DATA STS-58 AIR DATA STS-58

10 Isolation Frequency (%) 020406080100 Staphylococcus sp. Micrococcus sp. Bacillus sp. Corynebacterium sp. Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus sp. Acinetobacter sp. Enterobacter sp. Unidentified gram negative rods Serratia marcescens Pseudomonas paucimobilis Klebsiella sp. Flavobacterium sp. Bacteria Isolated From Shuttle In-Flight Air (n=16)

11 Isolation Frequency (%) 020406080100 Aspergillus sp. Penicillium sp. Hyphomycete Aspergillus fumigatus Cladosporium sp. Alternaria sp. Streptomyces sp. Drechslera sp. Microsporium sp. Rhodotorula sp. Geotrichum sp. Nigrospora sp. Pleospora sp. Fungi Isolated From Shuttle In-Flight Air (n=16)

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14 GarethCook, Boston Globe Staff (10-1-00)... The agingmir …. is nearly overrun with the stuff (fungi).Vistors have found numerous fungal patches with hues between green and black, feeding behind control panels, slowly digesting the ships air conditioner, communications unit, and myriad other surfaces.

15 Yuri Karash Space.com 7/27/00... Mir crewmembers noticed that the view from the stations porthole was deteriorating due to an unknown film that was spreading like horror movie scum.

16 Water Surfaces Air MICROBIAL ANALYSIS DURING FLIGHT

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19 NASA 6 SLIMY SAMPLE NASA 7 SLIMY SAMPLE NASA 7 FRESH SAMPLE Alcaligenes eutrophus Alcaligenes latus Citrobacter freundii Corynebacterium aquaticum Corynebacterium jeikeium Enterobacter agglomerans Escherichia coli Hydrogenophaga flava Kingella denitrifican Methylobacterium species Pseudomonas vesicularis Serratia liquefaciens Unidentified gram negative rod Xanthomonas maltophilia Bacillus coagulans Bacillus licheniformis Bacillus pumilus Bacillus species Comamonas acidovorans Corynebacterium species Enterobacter cloacae Presumptive Legionella species Pseudomonas species Rhodococcus species Serratia liquefaciens Serratia marcerans Sphingobacterium thalpophilum Unidentified gram negative rods (4) Yersinia frederiksenii Yersinia intermedia Alcaligenes faecalis Bacillus circulans Bacillus coagulans Bacillus licheniformis Bacillus pumilus Bacillus species CDC Group IVC 2 Citrobacter brackii Citrobacter freundii Comamonas acidovorans Corynebacterium species Flavobacterium meningosepticum Presumptive Legionella species Pseudomonas fluorescens Serratia liquefaciens Serratia marcesens Unidentified gram negative rods (3) Yersinia frederiksenii Yersinia intermedia Escherichia coli Serratia marcescensPresumptive Legionella BACTERIA FROM MIR SURFACE CONDENSATE

20 ciliated protozoa ameobaspirochete-form bacterium dust mite Organisms Recovered From Mir Surface Condensate

21 BACTERIAL FINGERPRINTING

22 Microorganisms play a key role in the biodestruction of materials and can contribute to equipment and hardware malfunctions BIODEGRADATION

23 Future Directions

24 Major Challenges in Mars Exploration Air Water Food Forward-Backward Contamination Crew Contamination Habitability Radiation Effects


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