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Kingdom Monera Archaebacteria Methanogens Swamps, Intestines Thermophiles Hydrothermal Vents Halophiles Salt Lake, Utah Eubacteria (peptidoglycan) Autotrophs.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Monera Archaebacteria Methanogens Swamps, Intestines Thermophiles Hydrothermal Vents Halophiles Salt Lake, Utah Eubacteria (peptidoglycan) Autotrophs."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Kingdom Monera Archaebacteria Methanogens Swamps, Intestines Thermophiles Hydrothermal Vents Halophiles Salt Lake, Utah Eubacteria (peptidoglycan) Autotrophs or Heterotrophs

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5  Prokaryotes  Microscopic (Eukaryotic cells are at least 10x bigger)  Unicellular  DNA is a single circular piece of DNA  Asexual Reproduction  Binary Fission  Metabolism  Aerobic  Anaerobic

6  Genetic Exchange  Conjugation –transfer DNA through contact  Transformation – acquire DNA from dead bacteria  Transduction – DNA is transferred from one bacteria to another using a virus (genetic engineering)

7 hill.com/sites/ /student_view0/chapter13/animatio n_quiz_2.html

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10 Bacteria have been around for 3.5 billion years!! How????  Cell Walls  Capsules (surrounds cell wall)  Asexual Reproduction, but can still acquire other genes  Inhabit every place on Earth

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12 allow them to withstand drought, high temps., lack of food, etc.

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14  Shapes  Coccus : Spheres  Bacillus : Rods  Spirillum : Spirals  Arrangements  Strept : Chains  Staph : Clusters  Diplo : Pairs

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19  Gram +  simple walls, large amount of peptidoglycan  Gram -  less peptidoglycan, outer membrane contains lipopolysaccharides which are often toxic and provides additional protection  more resistant to antibiotics  Many antibiotics (penicillens) inhibit synthesis of cross links in peptidoglycan and prevent formation of a functional wall Gram positive Gram negative

20  Gram Positive Organisms  Aerobic, Gram-positive cocci  Staphylococcus aureus (fig 1, 2, 3, 4)1234  Staphylococcus epidermidis (fig 1)1  Staphylococcus sp. (Coagulase-negative)(fig 1)1  Streptococcus pneumoniae (Viridans group)(fig 1, 2, 3)123  Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)(fig 1)1  Streptococcus pyogenes (group A)(fig 1, 2)1, 2  Enterococcus sp.(fig 1, 2, 3 )123  Aerobic, Gram-positive rods  Bacillus anthracis (fig 1, 2 )12  Bacillus cereus (fig 1, 2)12  Bifidobacterium bifidum (fig 1)1  Lactobacillus sp. (fig 1, 2)12  Listeria monocytogenes (fig 1, 2)12  Nocardia sp.(fig 1, 2)12  Rhodococcus equi (coccobacillus)(fig 1)1  Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (fig 1)1  Corynebacterium diptheriae (fig 1, 2)12  Propionibacterium acnes (fig 1)1  Anaerobic, Gram-positive rods  Actinomyces sp. (fig 1, 2)12  Clostridium botulinum (fig 1)1  Clostridium difficile (fig 1)1  Clostridium perfringens (fig 1, 2, 3)123  Clostridium tetani (fig 1, 2)12  Anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci  Peptostreptococcus sp. (fig 1)1

21  Gram Negative Organisms  Aerobic, Gram-negative cocci  Neisseria gonorrhoeae (fig 1, 2, 3, 4)1234  Neisseria meningitidis (fig 1; false color of the bacterium., 2)1; false color of the bacterium.2  Moraxella catarrhalis (fig 1)1  Anaerobic, Gram-negative cocci  Veillonella sp. (fig 1)1  Aerobic, Gram-negative rods  Fastidious, Gram-negative rods  Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (fig 1)1  Acinetobacter baumannii(fig 1 really A. calcoaceticus)1  Bordetella pertussis (fig 1, 2)12  Brucella sp. (fig 1)1  Campylobacter sp.(fig 1)1  Capnocytophaga sp.(fig 1, 2)1,2  Cardiobacterium hominis (fig 1)  Eikenella corrodens (fig 1)  Francisella tularensis (fig 1,)1,  Haemophilus ducreyi (fig 1, 2) 1,2  Haemophilus influenzae (fig 1, 2)12  Helicobacter pylori (fig 1, 2, 3, 4)1234  Kingella kingae (fig )  Legionella pneumophila (fig 1, 2, 3)123  Pasteurella multocida (fig 1)1  Enterobacteriaceae (glucose-fermenting Gram-negative rods)  Citrobacter sp. (fig 1)1  Enterobacter sp. (fig 1)1  Escherichia coli (fig 1, 2)12  Klebsiella pneumoniae (fig 1, 2)12  Proteus sp. (fig 1)1  Salmonella enteriditis (fig 1)1  Salmonella typhi (fig 1)1  Serratia marcescens (fig 1, 2)12  Shigella sp. (fig 1)1  Yersinia enterocolitica (fig 1)1  Yersinia pestis (fig 1, 2)12  Oxidase-positive, glucose-fermenting Gram-negative rods  Aeromonas sp. (fig 1)1  Plesiomonas shigelloides (fig 1)  Vibrio cholerae (fig 1, 2)12  Vibrio parahaemolyticus (fig 1)1  Vibrio vulnificus (fig 1)1  Glucose-nonfermenting, Gram-negative rods  Acinetobacter sp. (fig 1)1  Flavobacterium sp. (fig 1)  Pseudomonas aeruginosa (fig 1, 2)12  Burkholderia cepacia (fig 1)1  Burkholderia pseudomallei (fig 1)1  Xanthomonas maltophilia or Stenotrophomonas maltophila(fig 1)1  Anaerobic, Gram-negative rods  Bacteroides fragilis (fig 1)1  Bacteroides sp. (fig 1)1  Prevotella sp. (fig 1)1  Fusobacterium sp. (fig 1, 2)12  Gram-negative spiral  Spirillum minus (minor)- (fig 1)1

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23  Autotrophic  Photosynthetic  Chemoautotrophic (nitrogen fixers)  Heterotrophic  Decomposer  Parasitic (Treponema pallidum)

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26  Important Recyclers in environment  Nitrogen cycle

27  Bacteria can produce chemicals  Acetone, Butanol

28  Bacteria are used to make food  Pickles, buttermilk, cheese, sauerkraut, olives, vinegar, sourdough bread, beer, wine

29  Bacteria cause disease  Produce toxins (Clostridium botulinum)  Metabolize their host (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

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35 History of Microbiology 1664: Robert Hooke - microscope 1684: Antoni van Leeuwenhoek - microorganisms 1798: Edward Jenner - smallpox vaccination 1864: Louis Pasteur - spontaneous generation 1884: Robert Koch - Koch’s postulates 1889: Martinus Beijerink - concept of virus 1929: Alexander Fleming - discovery of penicillin 1977: Carl Woese - discovery of Archaea 1981: First reports of AIDS 1983: Luc Montagnier - discovery of HIV 1995: Craig Venter - complete genome sequence


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