Presentation on theme: "Muinah Fowora Walden University 22 nd July, 2012."— Presentation transcript:
Muinah Fowora Walden University 22 nd July, 2012
Introduction Food borne diseases Causes of food borne diseases Introduction of contaminants into food Local Restaurants in Lagos, Nigeria Causes of food borne diseases in local restaurants Evidence that this problem exist Existing interventions to this problem Possible interventions and regulations
Food consumption is one of the most important factors that influence health Majority of people visit local restaurants and fast food restaurants To protect human health, quality of food needs to be preserved
Millions affected yearly, with thousands of death annually worldwide (WHO, 2012) Diseases caused by the presence of contaminants in food. Contaminants can be biological or chemical in nature WHO (2012). Prevention of foodborne disease: Five keys to safer food. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/foodsafety/consumer/5keys/en/index.html http://www.who.int/foodsafety/consumer/5keys/en/index.html
Includes diseases like amebic dysentery, giardiasis, dysentery, gastroenteritis, diarrhea, typhoidal and non-typhoidal salmonellosis, amongst others. Micro-organisms mainly responsible (Moeller, 2011). Moeller, D.W. (2011). Environmental Health (4 th ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bacterial Infections examples include Salmonella species, Shigella species, Escherichia coli amongst others Viral Infections like the Norwalk-like viruses and the hepatitis A and E. Toxins and naturally occurring toxins (Moeller, 2011) Moeller, D.W. (2011). Environmental Health (4 th ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Before food preparation During food preparation After food preparation (MDH, 2010). MDH (2010). Food contamination and food borne illness prevention. Retrieved from http://www.health.state.mn.us/foodsafety/prevention.html http://www.health.state.mn.us/foodsafety/prevention.html
Source: Mama Dami Food Canteen Yaba, Lagos, picture by Muinah Fowora 2012)
Inadequate knowledge of food borne diseases and their causes Improper food handling techniques Unsustainable environment
Various researches have been carried out on both food handlers and on food from local canteens and restaurants The study by Smith, Agomo, Bamidele, Opere and Aboaba (2010) showed the knowledge of food handlers about typhoid fever
Smith et al. (2010) showed that 27.7% of food handlers do not wash hands before preparing food 28.1% used only water to wash hands after using the toilet 90% had heard of and know about typhoid fever
However, 15.6% of these did not know how it was contacted Okolie, Omonigbehin, Badru, and Akande (2011) isolated pathogenic bacteria from food sold in private primary schools in Akoka, Lagos. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas specie were all isolated from the food samples
Are there any existing interventions or regulations to combat these problems? Food and drugs decree 35 of 1974 Implementing authorities at the central, provincial, and local government level (WHO, 2009) WHO (2009). FAN country profiles – Nigeria. Retrieved from http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-programmes/hpr/food-safety-and-nutrition- fan/fan-country-profiles.html http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-programmes/hpr/food-safety-and-nutrition- fan/fan-country-profiles.html
Central level – NAFDAC, NIOMR, and the ministry of agriculture Provincial level – NAFDAC and the state government agencies Local level – Local government task force and NAFDAC
WHO food safety and Nutrition (FAN) country profile for Nigeria, Nigeria supposedly has food inspectors Food inspectors are supposed to carry out food control implementation, and also inspect food establishments (WHO, 2009).
Health hygiene training Enlightenment programs on hygienic food preparation and good sanitary practices Regulations to govern the food handlers and their practice. Proper inspection, monitoring and enforcement
MDH (2010). Food contamination and food borne illness prevention. Retrieved from http://www.health.state.mn.us/foodsafet y/prevention.html http://www.health.state.mn.us/foodsafet y/prevention.html Moeller, D.W. (2011). Environmental Health (4 th ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Okolie, N.P., Omonigbehin, E., Badru, O.A., & Akande, I.S. (2011). Isolation of pathogenic bacteria from some foods sold at selected private schools in Akoka area of Yaba Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science,6(3), 65-69.
Smith, S.I., Agoma, C.O., Bamidele, M., Opere, B.O., & Aboaba, O.O. (2010). Survey of food handlers in bukas (a type of local restaurant) in Lagos, Nigeria about typhoid fever. Health, 2(8), 951- 956. Doi:10.4236/health.2010.28141
WHO (2009). FAN country profiles – Nigeria. Retrieved from http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a- programmes/hpr/food-safety-and- nutrition-fan/fan-country-profiles.html http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a- programmes/hpr/food-safety-and- nutrition-fan/fan-country-profiles.html
WHO (2012). Prevention of foodborne disease: Five keys to safer food. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/foodsafety/consume r/5keys/en/index.html http://www.who.int/foodsafety/consume r/5keys/en/index.html
FDA (n.d.). Bad Bug Book: Foodborne Pathogenic Pathogens and Natural Toxins Handbook (2 nd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/Foo dSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllne ssFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/Bad BugBook/UCM297627.pdf http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/Foo dSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllne ssFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/Bad BugBook/UCM297627.pdf