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Bacterial Classification Taxonomy and Characteristics
Prokaryotes Domain Archaea [ancient bacteria] Domain Eubacteria [true bacteria] make up the old Kingdom Monera Prokaryotes Most abundant group Widely distributed Oldest organisms
Domain Eukarya Organelles Plasma membrane Cell wall, if present, made up of polysaccharides Fungi : chitin Plants/Algae: cellulose or pectins Vertebrates: no cell wall
Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes Eukaryotes DNA Membrane, nucleus Multiple chromosomes Associated with histones Organelles Cell Walls Division Sexual: Meiosis Asexual: Mitosis Motility: Flagella whips Prokaryotes DNA Nonmembrane, nucleiod One circular chromosome No histones Organelles Cell Walls: peptidoglycan Division Asexual Binary Fission Snapping Budding Motility: Flagella spins
Domain Archaea Evolved from earliest cells Methanogens Largest group Use CO2 Extreme environment Halophiles Thermophiles Psychrophiles Acidophiles Alkaliphiles
Domain Eukarya Fungi Molds Yeasts Mushrooms Protista Slime Molds Unicellular Algae Protozoa Plantae Multicellular Algae Mosses Plants Animaliae Insects Worms Sponges Vertebrates
Fungi Eukaryotic Unicellular = yeast Multicellular = molds, mushrooms Hyphae for nutrition from preformed matter Chitin Beneficial: decomposers Pathogenic Mycology
Protista Eukaryotic Unicellular Lack cell wall Classified based on movements Ciliates Flagellates Pseudopods Beneficial: decomposers Pathogenic
Eubacteria Prokaryotic Unicellular Shapes Vary in size Taxonomy: Bergey’s Manual Low G+C Gram Positive High G+C Gram Positive Gram Negative Proteobacteria Nonpathogenic: environmental contributions Pathogenic
Bacterial Shapes Result of Asexual Reproduction Binary Fission Cross wall divides Daughter cells +/- separate Snapping Division Inner cell wall divides Daughter cells hinged Budding Outgrowth of original cell
Binary Fission Results Cocci Pairs Chains Tetrads Cubes Clusters Bacillus Separate Pairs Chains
Cocci: Pairs Division in one plane Diplococci Neisseria
Cocci: Chains Division in 2 Planes Streptococcus
Cocci: Tetrads Division in three planes Micrococcus
Cocci: 8-cell group Divides in 3 planes Sarcina
Cocci: Clusters Division in 3 planes Staphylococcus
Rods: Straight E. coli
Rods: Club-Shaped Corynebacterium
Rods: Branching Actinomyces
Rods: Comma form Vibrio
Rods: Spore Formers
Gram Negative Rod Summary
Gram Positive Rod Summary
Bacterial Shapes Review
Low G+C Gram Positive Organisms Rods Clostridia Mycoplasmas Bacillus Listeria Lactobacillus Cocci Streptococcus Enterococcus Staphylococcus
High G+C Gram Positives Rods Corynebacterium Mycobacterium Actinomycetes Actinomyces Nocardia Streptomyces Corynebacterium NocardiaM.tb
Gram Negative Alpha Proteobacteria Pathogenic Rickettsia Brucella Ehrlichia Ehrlichia
Gram Negative Beta Proteobacteria Pathogenic Neisseria Bordetella Spirillum Burkholderia
Gram Negative Gamma Proteobacteria Pathogenic Legionella Coxiella Pseudomonads Enterobacteriaceae E. coli Salmonella Shigella Proteus Yersinia Enterobacter Serratia Pseudomonas
Gram Negative Epsilon Proteobacteria Pathogenic Campylobacter Helicobacter Campylobacter Helicobacter
Other Bacteria Pathogenic Chlamydia Spirochetes Treponema [syphilis] Borrelia [Lyme ds] Treponema Chlamydia Borrelia
Virus Acellular Nucleic acid core Protein coat Envelope [+/-] Modifications Viroids: RNA virus Virions : outside host Prions: proteins
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