Presentation on theme: "Brian Liebel, PE, LC AfterImage + s p a c e"— Presentation transcript:
1 Brian Liebel, PE, LC AfterImage + s p a c e email@example.com Is it Time to Get a DALI?Brian Liebel, PE, LCAfterImage + s p a c eRick Miller, PE, LCRNM Engineering
2 Agenda Fluorescent Dimming Control Basics DALI – How it Works DALI – Parts and PiecesDALI – CommissioningDALI – Designing a SystemSummary of DALI (as it stands today)
3 Lighting Interface Digital Addressable Works in bits, able to process a lot of informationAddressableUnique identity and operationLightingThe technology being drivenInterfaceA way of interacting
4 Overview of DALILighting technologies did not have a standard protocol for dimming in architectural settings.DMX 512 standard protocol for theatrical lighting has been established for years, and has led to the ability for all manufacturers to develop products around a standard system.DALI promises to do the same thing for architectural lighting systems.
5 Overview of DALIDALI is a non-proprietary protocol with specific design parameters for manufacturers to adhere to when producing devices and systems.The unique feature of 2-way communication may be valuable to the owner for maintenance and energy conservation purposes.
6 Overview of DALIEach ballast has its own address; therefore the system is highly flexible.The system uses a simplified wiring system, which promises to be cost-effective.The commissioning learning curve, lack of local controls, and lack of good monitoring capabilities are its biggest drawback at this time.
8 Dimming System Control Concepts Fluorescent Lamps:Desired Variable OutputFluorescent Dimming Ballasts:Drives the Lamps, determines range, power consumptionBallastBallast?Local Controls:Devices that control lighting within the space of the control???Centralized Panel Controls:Connection point for control wiring and some programmingCentralGreyBoxLocalBlackBoxInterface Components:Devices that convert one language to another?Computer Hardware:Most systems require hardware/software for setting up?Operating Software:Determines how system will be commissioned and operatedTopology:How components are wired togetherProtocol:The Language and Logic of the control system
9 Fluorescent Dimming Components Fluorescent Lamps:Deliver LightConcealed Interfaces:Interfaces local, network, and/or centralized componentsCentralGreyBoxFluorescent Ballast:Drives fluorescent lamps, determines dimmed level and power drawLocalBlackBoxCentralized Panels:Wiring Connections for control and/or powerHardwired or programmed for localized functionalityBallastBallastPhotocell:Ceiling mountedSometimes integral in wall occupancy sensorOpen or Closed LoopOccupancy Sensor:WallboxCeiling with RelayCPU:Programming for overall functionalityInput: IN or OUT of spaceOutput: ON/OFFInput: Lighting LevelOutput: Continuous or switched levelLocal Dimmer:WallboxHandheld RemoteDesktop ComputerUSER FRIENDLYSoftware:User Interface for defining system settingsInput: Human PreferenceOutput: Continuous or Switched Level
10 Computer, turn on the lights Protocol ConceptsLighting Controls are like people talking:Each Devices can be considered a personBetween each person, a conversation needs to take placeIn order for the conversation to work, each person must:Speak the same languageHave complementary intellectKnow when its time to listen or speakIf any of these conditions does not exist:May need an interpreter or gatewayMay need to find someone else to talk toThe wiring is like air for soundIt must be able to accurately interpret, carry, and speak the language being spokenBallastBallast“CLICK”“Turn on the lights”Turn on the lightsCentralGreyBox“Turn on the lights”Turn on the lights!Computer, turn on the lights
11 Dimming System Control Protocols A Protocol establishes a fixed set of parameters by which a system works.Protocols established in dimming systems cover both the electrical wiring method and the logic by which the system is driven.Prior to DALI, the industry had not standardized on a protocol, and each manufacturer developed a unique system that operated differently from other manufacturers.
12 Dimming System Design Considerations Do I need local or centralized control?Do I need the system to be monitored?Do I need to be able to control the system from a central control point or from remote sites?How does the system comply with Title 24?How easy is it to install, commission, operate, and maintain?
13 Dimming System Protocol Considerations Number and Type of local controls availableOccupancy SensorsPhotosensorsWallbox dimmersComputer InterfaceProprietary or Universal Protocol for interfacing with other systems/manufacturersWarranty of productReputation and Stability of manufacturer
14 Fluorescent Dimming Ballast Considerations Range of dimmingAvailability of #Lamps/Ballast (1,2,3,4)Establishes Language for Control SystemEnergy Efficiency / Energy Consumption are function of the ballast: must look at load profile curves (compares % absolute light level dimmed to power consumption)Affects on Power QualityCOST
15 Fluorescent Dimming System Control Signals/Protocols Dimming Signal Options:Line Voltage Dimmer (Advance Mark X)Line Voltage Proprietary (Lutron)Low Voltage (0-10 Protocol)Digital Proprietary Protocol (Easylight)Digital Protocol (DALI)
16 Dimming Ballast Comparisons Control SignalDimming RangeAdvance Mark X120V Inc. DimmerDown to 5%Lutron Hi-LumeProprietary Line V.Down to 1%Lutron Eco-10Down to 10%Generic0-10VEasylightProprietary AnalogDALIDown to 1% for LinearDown to 3% for CF
17 Fluorescent Operation Ballast Filament VoltageBallast Factor Determines OutputLine VoltageBallastBasic ON/OFF OperationBallast electronics are simpleBallast rated with constant Ballast Factor (BF) that determines the light output of the lampsInstant Start, Programmed Start, or Rapid Start Operation
18 Fluorescent Dimming Dimming Operation Ballast Filament VoltageModified WaveformLine VoltageBallastControl SignalDimming OperationTakes input signal and changes the output power to lampsControl Signal determines the types of control devices that can be usedBallasts determines system efficacy and power quality
19 Line Voltage Fluorescent Dimming Ballast Filament VoltageModified WaveformLine VoltageBallastRequires 2 wires:Dimming signal comes from common incandescent dimmer that modifies the waveform of the line voltageAdvance Mark 10 Model
20 Line Voltage Fluorescent Dimming Ballast Filament VoltageModified WaveformLine VoltageBallastRequires 3 wires:(1) ON/OFF Hot(1) Dimmed “Hot”(1) NeutralLutron HiLume, ECO-10 Models
21 Low Voltage Fluorescent Dimming Ballast Filament VoltageModified WaveformLine VoltageBallastInformation FlowControl Signal0-10 V signal from dimmer or centralized controller0-10V System Operation
22 Proprietary Analog Fluorescent Dimming Ballast Filament VoltageModified WaveformLine VoltageBallastInformation FlowControl SignalProprietary analog signal from dimmer or centralized controllerEasylight System Operation
23 Digital Addressable Dimming Ballast Filament VoltageModified WaveformLine VoltageBallastInformation FlowInformation back from Ballast to systemControl SignalUniversal protocol digital signal from dimmer or centralized controllerDALI System Operation
24 Title 24 Control Requirements Automatic shutoff requirementLocal Switching requirementBi-level switching requirementDaylight switching requirement
25 Standard Bi-Level On/Off Line VoltageBallastBallastBallastBallastNOTES:All Line Voltage ComponentsLocal Control, No Networking CapabilityNo Dimming, only Bi-LevelLine Voltage 2-level Occupancy Sensor: Auto OFF and Bi-level controlRoom 1Room 2
26 Line Voltage Dimming w/OS BallastBallastNOTES:All Line Voltage ComponentsLocal Control, No Networking CapabilityContinuous DimmingLine Voltage Dimmer with Occupancy SensorRoom 1Room 2
27 O-10V Dimming Line Voltage Ballast Ballast NOTES: Ceiling mounted occupancy sensor for Automatic OFF controlBallastBallastNOTES:Low Voltage wiring to local controlLocal Control, No Networking Capability0-10V Dimmer on wall to comply with Bi-Level dimming requirementRoom 1Room 2
28 Networked LV Dimming Line Voltage Digital Network Ballast Ballast Interfaces for network requiredCeiling mounted occupancy sensor for Automatic OFF controlBallastBallastNOTES:Low Voltage wiring to local control from interface box above ceilingNetwork allows for centralized maximum dimming and load shed capabilityOptional Photocell for daylight compensation dimming (Automatic)LV Dimmer on wall to comply with Bi-Level dimming requirementRoom 1Room 2
29 Proprietary Line Dimming Line VoltageDigital NetworkInterfaces for network requiredCeiling mounted occupancy sensor for Automatic OFF controlBallastBallastNOTES:Line voltage wiring to local control from interface box above ceilingNetwork allows for centralized maximum dimming and load shed capabilityOptional Photocell for daylight compensation dimming (Automatic)LV Dimmer on wall to comply with Bi-Level dimming requirementRoom 1Room 2
30 DALI Dimming Line Voltage DALI Network Ballast Ballast NOTES: Ceiling mounted occupancy sensor for Automatic OFF controlBallastBallastNOTES:All devices are DALI compliantNetwork allows for centralized maximum dimming, load shed capability, and monitoring of statusOptional Photocell for daylight compensation dimming (Automatic)LV Dimmer on wall to comply with Bi-Level dimming requirementRoom 1Room 2
31 Making the case for Fluorescent Dimming Systems User Satisfaction:Using dimming systems will result in better visual comfort, especially in office environments with computer usage.Using dimming systems will result in overall user satisfaction by allowing individuals to have more control (unless the system is too complicated).Reductions in lighting are better if they are uniform and gradual, as opposed to stepped dimming.
32 Making the case for Fluorescent Dimming Systems Energy Conservation:Using dimming systems generally results in lower energy costs. The level varies with application.Many fluorescent systems are overlit for their environments - It is difficult to quantify the amount of overlit space due to ranges in IES recommendations and user preferences.When tied with other components, additional energy savings are obtained through daylight controls and diurnal cycling control concepts.
33 Making the case for Fluorescent Dimming Systems Building Management:User Satisfaction results lead to fewer complaints and potentially added health benefits (lower glare, better vision, less eye strain, fewer headaches, etc)Energy benefits can be substantial, and can have a positive ROI when considering the long-term costs.Versatility in changing lighting levels based on use in large spaces is a long-term benefit.
34 Making the case for Fluorescent Dimming Systems Scotopically Enhanced Lighting Applications:In retrofit or new construction, the added incremental energy savings from Scotopically Enhanced Lighting are sometimes best achieved through dimming.In parabolic lighting, it is necessary to dim the lights to bring down the apparent brightness.Recent research indicates that direct/indirect lighting may provide increase visual comfort, in conjunction with scotopically enhanced lighting.
35 Making the case for Fluorescent Dimming Systems Economics – First Costs:First Cost Increases: BALLASTS are generally the biggest adder on the first cost. These costs are difficult to quantify, since they are blended with fixture costs in new construction. In addition, some dimming systems are overly complicated and ADD to the component cost of new systems.First Cost Decreases: Many dimming systems simplify wiring to comply with the automatic shutoff, bi-level switching, and daylight zone control requirements of Title 2; Many dimming system components (i.e. panels and hardware) are very competitive with intelligent ON/OFF relay panels.
36 Making the case for Fluorescent Dimming Systems Economics: Generally unrecognized costs:Engineering: It takes a bit longer to engineer dimming systems due to the increased complication of coordinating all the parts and pieces.Commissioning: This number can be significant. Fine tuning dimming systems and making sure all the components are working as engineered takes time. General Rule of Thumb: The more versatile the system, the more complicated to commission.
37 Making the case for Fluorescent Dimming Systems Economics: Long-term savings:Energy: In some retrofit scenarios, the savings can be significant, especially in cases where the space has T12 lamps, is overlit, or is using Scotopically Enhanced Lighting as the retrofit.User Satisfaction: It is widely recognized that dimming systems result in higher user comfort and satisfaction. While no hard economic numbers are obtainable, we can say that better visual comfort and user satisfaction have positive economic benefits for management.
38 Making the case for Fluorescent Dimming Systems Option12345SchedulingControlLoad Shedding & Daylight DimmingLayout: One Fixture per UserWorkspace Occupancy SensingPersonalDimmingTotal CostSavings5%10%40%60%70%Chart courtesy of Lightolier
39 Making the case for Fluorescent Dimming Systems Cumulative Expenses$0$500,000$1,000,000$1,500,000$2,000,000$2,500,0002468101214161820YearWorkspace-Addressable2x4 Troffers- ExistingIndirect Linear RunsChart courtesy of Lightolier
41 Basic Communication Basic Commands DALI Network Turn on, Ballast #32 Why don’t they ever turn me all the way on???LampBasic CommandsTurn lamp on to 50%DALI Ballast #32DALI NetworkTurn on, Ballast #32Turn ON, Ballast #32Got it, turned on…but wait, my Max level is 50%!
42 Basic Communication Query Commands DALI Network I wonder what its like to be at 100% ?LampQuery CommandsLight level is at 50%Ballast #32 is ON at 50%DALI Ballast #32DALI NetworkWhat’s your light level, ballast 32?What’s your light level, Ballast 32?What’s my light level? Oh, let’s see, its at 50%!
43 DALI Protocol DALI is not a product DALI is a protocol (a set of rules) (from ballast perspective)Power connectionLamp responseControl interfaceCommand set
44 Protocol: Power Connection Initial application of voltage – lamps go to full output or other preset levelUniversal voltage input – 115V to 300V, 50Hz to 60HzHigh power factorLow harmonicsTransient protectionUniversal input voltage, high power factor, low THD and transient voltage protection are not DALI requirements, however, all of the known ballast manufacturers provide these features.
45 Protocol: Lamp Response Precise dimming curveLogarithmic curveRange:0.1% to 100% for incandescent, 1% to 100% for linear fluorescent, 3% to 100% for CF254 steps (2.8% increase per step)Based on lamp arc power(This is not lamp lumen output)
47 Protocol: Control Interface IntentElectricalMediaWiringBits and BytesNo Collision Detection
48 Control Interface: Intent Low costSimpleLow interferenceInterchangeable
49 Control Interface: Electrical Voltage – 0 VDC to 16VDCVoltage drop – must not exceed 2 voltsLoss of control voltage – lamps go to preset levelCurrent – 2 ma consumption, able to sink 250 maPower – Remote power supply of <250 maSpeed – 1,200 bits/sec (compare to Ethernet at 100Mb/s)Must be able to withstand live voltageThe 16 volt, low speed control signal provides immunity to power-line noise.
50 DALI Ballast Block Diagram This diagram was borrowed from an International Rectifier publication.
51 Control Interface: Media 2 wire power & networkTwisted Pair/Shielded Pair not requiredNon-polarizedNo end-of-line resistorStandard material and methodsClass 1 or 2 wiring (in or outside of conduit)Low voltage and power limited (3 W per bus)Open topology: chain, star, treeLineNDADA
52 Electrician’s Wiring Diagram This diagram was borrowed from a Lightolier publication. It is showing two circuits (black and red) to each luminaire.6 wires shown:(1) Normal HotEmergency Hot(1) NeutralGroundDALI
53 Control Interface: Bits and Bytes Address (one specific ballast)0AAAAAA1 + CCCCCCCC , 0AAAAAA0 + arc powerBroadcast (all ballasts)CCCCCCCC , arc powerGroup100GGGG1 + CCCCCCCC , 100GGGG0 + arc power“Go To Scene”:0AAAAAA SSSSSSSS100GGGG SSSSAAAAAA represents the 6 bit Address of a ballast – 64 possible unique addressesCCCCCCCC represents the 8 bit Command – 256 possible commandsGGGG represents the 4 bit Group – each ballast may belong up to 16 Groups (numbers 0 through 15)SSSS represents the 4 bit Scene – each ballast may be have up to 16 Scenes (numbers 0 through 15)
54 Control Interface: No Collision Detection Assumes only one sending deviceBallasts talk only when queriedNo checking for simultaneous commandsControl manufacturers must provide collision detection
55 Protocol: Command Set Current command set is for ballasts only. >100 commands defined (with space for future commands)Ability to program, control and monitor status information
56 Ballast Commands:To Ballast OffStep UpStep Down,On and Step UpSet MaxStep Down and OffSet MinGo to MaxGo to MinUp to MaxDown to MinFade to LevelSet Actual LevelSet Power On LevelSet System Failure LevelSet Fade TimeSet Fade RateSet SceneGo to SceneRemove from SceneSet GroupRemove from Group
57 Ballast Commands: Information from Ballast (Query) Actual Level (DALI)Power ON LevelSystem Failure LevelMaxMinGroup AssignmentScene LevelFade TimeRandom AddressVersion NumberDevice Type
58 Device Types Type 0 – Standard (fluorescent) Type 1 – Emergency lightingType 2 – HID lampsType 3 – Low voltage halogen lampsType 4 – Line voltage incandescent lampsType 5…255 – Future device types
60 DALI System Components Centralized ControlsTridonicsBusmaster panelsDALI RS232Palm-DimWin-DimWin-Dim netStarfield (Near Future)DALI to Ethernet capabilityLightolierTridonics equipmentBallastsTridonicLinear fluorescent 1/2 F32T8 & 1/2 F54T5HO.CFLAdvanceSylvaniaTridonics underneathRequired components to have a working system.The ballast which stores the memory and accepts DALI Commands.The Loop Controller or Bus Master provides power to the DALI buss and acts as a protocol translator.Control devices based upon the application and desired control. Without control the control devices the lights will operate at 100% light level.Optional Control DevicesGroup Controls may include occupancy sensors, photo sensors or demand controllers. Typical action is “group to light level”Scene controls can be represented by multi-button wall switches. Typical control is “Group A to Level, Group B to OFF”Relay Modules accept DALI commands for ON/OFF control of non DALI loads. Typical applications are non DALI lighting and Audio Video Equipment.NEMA is working on making sure devices play nice.
61 DALI System Local Controls StarfieldLocal DimmersScene ControlsIn Conference rooms to match A/V controlsSwitch / relaysShade ControlsProjector LiftScreen up/downWatt StopperScene Controls4 button scene switchesRelay ModulesNon dimmed lightingLevitonScene Controls4 button scene switchesRequired components to have a working system.The ballast which stores the memory and accepts DALI Commands.The Loop Controller or Bus Master provides power to the DALI buss and acts as a protocol translator.Control devices based upon the application and desired control. Without control the control devices the lights will operate at 100% light level.Optional Control DevicesGroup Controls may include occupancy sensors, photo sensors or demand controllers. Typical action is “group to light level”Scene controls can be represented by multi-button wall switches. Typical control is “Group A to Level, Group B to OFF”Relay Modules accept DALI commands for ON/OFF control of non DALI loads. Typical applications are non DALI lighting and Audio Video Equipment.NEMA is working on making sure devices play nice.
62 DALI Loop Controller (Bus Master) Required for any DALI SystemProvides power for the DALI datalineActual power supplied was 150 ma, not 250 ma as specified.Ballast quantity or power consumption dictates bus quantities.Provides protocol translation from DALI - RS-232One required for every 64 DALI ballasts
63 Busmaster Enclosure Installation This diagram was borrowed from a Tridonic publication.RS232 Connection
64 Scene / Group Switches Single gang four button switches Individual office control.Ballast and non dimmed CFL controlOpen Office ControlArrive / Depart Group ControlIncludes group raise / lower function.
65 DALI Relay Controls Available in Power Packs or switch configuration. Used for ON/OFF control off non DALI loads.Used for:Non DALI lighting loadsAudio Video EquipmentShades / BlindsNON DALI Ballast or other loadPower WiringDALI Relay ModuleWatt Stopper Power PackDALI Bus
66 RouterUsed to convert eight RS-232 DALI bus controllers to single Ethernet I./P address.Expensive and provides little value.
67 Software for Commissioning Assigned unique address for each ballastAddress routine brings one ballast to 100%, dims all other ballasts on network.Supports replacement or addition of ballastsAllows manual control of ballastsConfigures scenes and groups.
68 Palm Pilot Interface Select groups dim up and down Off Select light scenesOffThis diagram was borrowed from a Tridonic presentation.
69 Software for Operation PC basedManages single DALI bus controlAllows monitoring and controlServer FeaturesManages multiple DALI bus controlsProvidesSchedulingMulti bus communication.Allows employee workstations to interface to DALI network.Stores historical data
70 User InterfaceThis diagram was borrowed from a Tridonic presentation.
71 MonitoringSystem must poll data from each ballast on regular interval:Slows system down.Must determine appropriate interval for taking readings. Cannot take any more that 1 reading every 5 minutes.Data received is crude:Only recognizes state and level of dimmed ballastDoes not know what kind of ballast it is: 120V, 277V. 1- or 2-lamp (each has a different power consumption).Requires extensive work in building database structure in order to get meaningful data.
72 Auxiliary Components Power Supply Controller Units Voltage – 16VDCPower – <250 maController UnitsScene ControllerDaylight Harvesting ControllerOccupancy ControllerComputer Interface (optional)A DALI system needs more than just DALI ballasts.
73 Auxiliary Components (Cont’d) GatewaysDALI – RS232DALI - EthernetRS232 – Ethernet hubIn separate cabinet from the branch circuit panelboard
74 Summary – Parts and Pieces Local Controls are sparse.DALI Occupancy SensorsLocal Override that provides REAL time overrideOne manufacturer doesn’t have everything yet.Software of system is not intuitive or easy.Significant IT personnel involvement and training.Potentially longer commissioning time as compared to other systems.Scheduling needs additional development.Monitoring capability is marginal and extremely difficult to glean useful information from.
76 DALI ProgrammingEach DALI loop can support up to 64 individual addressesWhen in initial programming mode:Each ballast generates a 24 bit random addressControl unit then assigns a 6 bit short address (0 to 63) to each ballastMay reassign a 6 bit address to each ballastAlternate Method: May assign a 6 bit address by disconnecting a lamp from the ballast
77 DALI Programming (Cont’d) Group AddressingEach DALI loop can support up to 16 individual groupsEach ballast may belong to any or all of the 16 available groupsScene SettingEach ballast may have as many as 16 preset levels (scenes)Scenes may be applied to ballastsScenes may be applied to groups
78 Commissioning DALI Ballast Manufacturer DALI Controller Manufacturer Luminaire ManufacturerArchitectLighting DesignerElectrical EngineerElectricianManufacturer’s RepresentativeProgrammerSystems IntegratorCommissionerHere are some possible entities who could commission a DALI system.
79 Commissioning: DALI Product Manufacturer Luminaire Manufacturer Test product prior to shipmentLuminaire ManufacturerTest assembly prior to shipmentCould preprogram addresses, groups, scenesElectricianRequire high quality splices and terminationsDocument power wiring and control wiringVerify power wiring and lampingVerify DALI loop – broadcast raise/lower, count ballast quantitySuggestion how each entity could help with the commissioning.
80 Commissioning: (Cont’d) Lighting Designer / Electrical EngineerDetermine preset levels for scenesProgrammerAssign and document groupsAssign and document scenesSystems IntegratorCombine with IT or AV?
81 Commissioning: (Cont’d) Manufacturer’s RepresentativeMay be the CommissionerCommissionerTwo people with walkie-talkiesDocument groupingsFlash addressed ballast until that ballast is foundCycle through addresses to find ballast addressDocument ballast addresses on lighting plansThe manufacturer’s representative is currently the commissioner because there is no one else.This opens the opportunity for a new service agency: The Lighting Commissioner
82 The Goal of Commissioning Verify all components are installed properly and working as specified.To ensure that the owner has complete documentation on the system as it was installed.
83 DALI Commissioning Many more points than ever before More capabilities means more settings to deal withAll components must be completely installedIf power is shut off to DALI bus, all lamps go to 100% by default (this can be reprogammed)Use “Broadcast” command to verify wiring integrityReassign short address in logical sequence
84 DALI Requirements All components must be completely installed Line Voltage Wiring, DALI Communication Bus, All Ballasts and Fixtures, and any DALI Override devicesNo Faking It!
85 Start by reviewing the Hardware 5 Bus Masters and a Router in a Custom Enclosure
86 And the switches Four 4-Button Master Switches in Entry Four Interface and two 4-Button Switches in Conf. Room
87 Once everything is ready Each ballast address assigned by software wizard, so they are not readily apparent.Different loops will take different amounts of time. Troubleshooting can be tedious.Start with a Clean Reflected Ceiling diagram and a sharp red pencil.
88 Random Addressing automatically per DALI protocol 241058111416121926673132725242333203137283632151817221930213829353439Prepared by: Charles Knuffke
89 Readdress Sequentially manual effort, well worth the time 123456789141910111213151617182024212627282930363738394025233531323334
90 Setting Up the SystemBallast are assigned to groups, and levels (from 0-255) are set for various scenes. Groups are exclusive, and easy to track.Commands from WinDim can be used to communicate to devices in 3 address mannersBroadcast = All DevicesGroup = Specific Group from 1-16Address = Specific Ballast
94 TroubleshootingVerify ~16VDC on the DALI bus to the ballasts, and verify ballast wiring.Use the software to detect failures, and send override commands from the softwareDataline switch, in addition to overriding groups, has two testing features that helpedBroadcast On/OffRaise Lower entire Group
96 Lighting Plan for Open Office CEC Title 24: mandatoryTwo level or dimmingOccupancy / Auto OffDaylight HarvestTime-of-Day off with timed manual overrideAdjust for individual comfortWeekend functionSecurity functionPower reduction
97 STEP 1: Design fixture layout or retrofit existing fixtures with DALI compatible ballast. This diagram was borrowed from a Tridonic presentation.
98 STEP 2: Layout DALI network (2 wires) to each fixture independent of circuit wiring. Each DALI loop can support up to 64 ballast. Loop wires can be located in same conduit with power wiringThis diagram was borrowed from a Tridonic presentation.
99 STEP 3: Design controls into space and determine easiest connection to DALI bus. Identify placement of bus power supply and optional network interface.This diagram was borrowed from a Tridonic presentation.
100 STEP 4: Address DALI ballasts STEP 4: Address DALI ballasts. Determine fixture groupings and map control devices to fixtures. Each ballast can be assigned to multiple groups (16 max).This diagram was borrowed from a Tridonic presentation.
101 Network System Configuration LPThis diagram was borrowed from a Tridonic presentation.
103 Example Project - Groups Second Floor Control Groups
104 A Few Notes on Retrofitting Wiring to ballasts is not necessarily easy as a retrofitLeads into ballast need to be preciseLamp replacements can cause shorts and blow out ballastsThere is a higher level of electrical work and interface than normally associated in straight retrofit workSelect Contractors based on knowledge and experience with complicated systems.
105 A Few Notes on Retrofitting If there are existing Line Voltage Occupancy Sensors….When the power to the ballast is OFF due to no occupancy, the ballast is not recognized; it cannot be programmed.Whenever anyone leaves the space and the lights turn OFF (via power), when the lamps turn back on, they will go to a pre-programmed level (default is FULL ON); NOT the last setting set by the users.
106 Lighting Plan for a Typical Office Building Application
117 Benefits of Networked Fluorescent Dimming Decrease energy usageSet maximum dimming levelsPossible to provide peak load sheddingOverall energy managementImprove occupant comfort
118 Benefits of DALI Simplify wiring installation Minimizes Components May Lower maintenance costIncrease space flexibilityStatus monitoring of individual components
119 Limitations of DALI Fade Time: <0.7 sec to 90 sec Requires computer to initialize and programIntended only for lightingNOT ENOUGH DALI PRODUCTSSOFTWARE UPGRADES NECESSARY FOR EASE OF IMPLEMENTATIONMONITORING IS NOT USEABLE WITHOUT EXTENSIVE PROGRAMMING EFFORTThe Fade Time can be extended by computer software commands or by the local controllers.Additional DALI products were shown or announced at LightFair 2002.
120 DALI still in Early Adopter Stage Initial costs are highLearning curve with technologyProducts are limitedSoftware not user-friendly or intuitiveMonitoring capabilities difficultMust have clients willing to support the system
121 Advice for Future Commissioners Make sure you’ve got time to check out system, and understand how checkout will impact occupants.Startup up of sites we have done have taken over 60 hours. Problems break down into:1/3 “New Technology issues” (software implementation)1/3 problem issues (wiring and ballast burnout)1/3 commissioning setpoints
123 Wish List (Software)Make it easier for typical building maintenance personnelSchedulersPeak Load ShavingReal Energy Monitoring Capability with reporting (recognize ballast type and calculate real values or have sensors in the ballast circuiting for actual power consumption).
124 Wish List (Interfaces) Line Voltage Occupancy Sensor InterfaceAudio/Visual InterfaceMotor Control for Blinds, Curtains, Projection ScreensGateways for BACnet®, DMX512, LONWORKS®, and TCP/IPInterface to 0-10V dimming system
125 Brian Liebel, PE, LC AfterImage + s p a c e Is it Time to Get a DALI?You Decide…Rick Miller, PE, LCRNM EngineeringBrian Liebel, PE, LCAfterImage + s p a c e