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Taking the Byte out of Bits: Lighting Design, Installation, and Operation in the Digital Age Seminar #21 May 7, 2003 4:00 PM Richard Miller – RNM Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "Taking the Byte out of Bits: Lighting Design, Installation, and Operation in the Digital Age Seminar #21 May 7, 2003 4:00 PM Richard Miller – RNM Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 Taking the Byte out of Bits: Lighting Design, Installation, and Operation in the Digital Age Seminar #21 May 7, 2003 4:00 PM Richard Miller – RNM Engineering Wayne Morrow – Starfield Controls

2 How we got here and why general lighting control is the last major building system to go digital. What is DALI?

3 …a famous artist

4 … a lighting control system

5 As a potato is... …a platform

6 to Mr. Potato Head

7 Implementation can be flexible and creative

8 The Digital Revolution - History 1880 – Morse Code developed by Samuel Morse. 1938 – Claude Shannon lays foundation of digital computers by recognizing that relays can mimic Boolean logic gates. 1968 – First commercial PLC for industrial controls. 1991 – HVAC DDC controls replace Pneumatics. Security and Access Control follow quickly. 1991 – Tridonic introduces first digital ballast. 2000 – DALI published as IEC standard. 2001 – Lighting Industry recognizes DALI.

9 DALI is the most significant advancement in lighting standardization since Edisons introduction of the screw-in light bulb over a hundred years ago Elwyn Gee, Judges Citation Award presentation, LightFair 02 Judge. Quote:

10 Why has it taken so long Lighting is big and distributed Lots of devices Advanced technology High noise environment Cost constraints

11 DALI = Digital Addressable Lighting Interface - IEC 60929 Annex E4 …a communication standard and protocol

12 Kommunikation Kommunikation Betriebsgerät => Steuergerät: Lampenfehler DALI Steuereinheit BG Lampe defekt

13 Simplifed and Consistent Wiring 2 wire power & network Non-polarized Standard material and methods Class 1 or 2 wiring (in or outside of conduit) Low voltage and power limited (3 W per bus) Line N DA

14 Operating Features Soft zoning Open Systems (International, non- proprietary, published standard) Interoperable equipment Multi-station Local and global control

15 Stakeholder Benefits Designer – Simplicity, flexibility, modular, generic rough- in, multi-station, soft-zoning Installer – Simplicity (2-wire non-polarized), standard materials and methods, in or outside of conduit. Owner – quick turn-time, tenant billing, quality of space User – individual workstation control, convenience, scenes, access through wireless computers Maintenance – quick response, lamp & ballast failure reporting, energy monitoring, small replacement inventory, open systems, component interoperability

16 Control Methods

17 Light Switches ab abab Hardwired Local control

18 Network Relays & Dim Modules a b ab ab Central Control Panel Systems Hardwired Local & global control

19 Device-level Peer-to-Peer Networking a b c P c M c

20 DALI vs 10baseT Ethernet DALI Bit Ethernet Bit x10x1000x100

21 Reliability – Big, Slow, Tough SystemBits/secRatio DALI1,2001 Modem56,00047 Basic Ethernet10,000,0008,333

22 Energy Features ASHRAE 90.1 and CA 2005 Title 24 Compliant Energy Monitoring Tenant Billing Open and closed loop daylight dimming Motion sensor interface Sweep with manual override Individual Dimming Load shed Peak shaving

23 Device 10-20 devices per loop Local - DALI (Slow - 1.2 Kbs) 64 addresses & 16 groups per loop Global - Ethernet, TCP/IP, Internet (Fast - 10-100 Mbs) Unlimited IP addresses Network Layer Schematic

24 Network Hierarchy

25 Global Management

26 Database Admin Interface Users User Interface & System Management

27 HVAC Security Access Fire Alarm Nurse Call DALI Lighting Integration

28 Details of DALI

29 Control Interface: Bits and Bytes Address (one specific ballast) 0AAAAAA1 + CCCCCCCC, 0AAAAAA0 + arc power Broadcast (all ballasts) 11111111 + CCCCCCCC, 11111110 + arc power Group 100GGGG1 + CCCCCCCC, 100GGGG0 + arc power Go To Scene: 0AAAAAA1 + 0001SSSS 11111111 + 0001SSSS 100GGGG1 + 0001SSSS

30 Control Interface: No Collision Detection Assumes only one sending device Ballasts talk only when queried No checking for simultaneous commands Control manufacturers must provide collision detection

31 Protocol: Command Set Current command set is for ballasts only. >100 commands defined (with space for future commands) Ability to program, control and monitor status information

32 Ballast Commands: To Ballast Off Step Up Step Down, On and Step Up Set Max Step Down and Off Set Min Go to Max Go to Min Up to Max Down to Min Fade to Level Set Actual Level Set Power On Level Set System Failure Level Set Fade Time Set Fade Rate Set Scene Go to Scene Remove from Scene Set Group Remove from Group

33 Ballast Commands: Information from Ballast Actual Level, Power ON Level System Failure Level Max Min Group Assignment Scene Level Fade Time Random Address Version Number Device Type

34 Simplest of DALI Systems DALI Ballast DALI Controller DALI Power Supply 16 VDC DALI Bus

35 Wiring Friendly DALI Ballast DALI Relay DALI Switch DALI PS&G Lighting Panel HNGDDHNGDD DALI Bus Lighting Circuit Every ballast, switch and relay are wired the same regardless of location in circuit.

36 Lighting Panel and DALI Cabinet

37 Used for ON/OFF control of non- DALI loads. Used for: Non DALI lighting loads Audio Video Equipment Shades / Blinds DALI Relay Module Power Wiring DALI Bus NON DALI Ballast or other load Power Relay Control of a Non-DALI Device

38 24105811141612 272524 3137 3 283632 29353439 1518172219 30 33 1 67 9 13 38 26 23 20 21 0 Free Topology Bus not restricted to chains or stars DALI Power Supply and Gateway DALI Bus DALI Ballast Prepared by: Charles Knuffke

39 Traditional Wiring for Conference Room - 9 homeruns S

40 DALI Wiring for Conference Room - 1 homerun S

41 1. Decide DALI Bus to run with Lighting Circuit 2. Max loading of circuits based on lighting watts 3. Max DALI addresses per DALI bus 4. DALI ballast and DALI controllers consume power 5. DALI power supply is limited to 250 ma 6. Actual power supply may be only 150 ma DALI Design Parameters

42 Control Interface: Electrical Voltage – 0 VDC (+/- 4.5V) to 16VDC (9.5V to 22.5V) Voltage drop – must not exceed 2 volts Loss of control voltage – lamps go to preset level Current – 2 ma consumption, able to sink 250 ma Power – Remote power supply of <250 ma Speed – 1,200 bits/sec Must be able to withstand live voltage

43 Voltage Drop must not exceed 2 volts Wire Gaugeohm/ft Cable Length (ft) 220.0161248 200.0102392 180.00638627 160.00401998 140.002531000 120.001591000

44 LEED CI - EA Credit 1.1 Allowed W/SF Allowed Watts Actual Watts% Reduction ASHRAE 1.338,25226,31531% CA T24 1.235,31026,31525% Reduce lighting power density to 30% below the Standard, (2 LEED points)

45 DALI Commissioning Many more points than ever before More capabilities means more settings to deal with All components must be completely installed If power is shut off to DALI bus, all lamps go to 100% by default. Use Broadcast command to verify wiring integrity Reassign short address in logical sequence

46 24105811141612 272524 3137 3 283632 29353439 1518172219 30 33 1 67 9 13 38 26 23 20 21 0 Prepared by: Charles Knuffke Random Addressing automatically per DALI protocol

47 012345678 161718 2627 13 282930 31323334 3637383940 25 24 9 1112 14 15 35 19 20 21 23 10 Readdress Sequentially manual effort, well worth the time

48 Excel Spreadsheet – Initial information

49 Excel Spreadsheet – Expanded information

50 Available Products Ballasts Scene Controllers Power Supplies Accessories Gateways Commissioning Tools System Software

51 DALI Protocol IEC NEMA Users and Specifiers

52 The End

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