Student Learning Objectives 1. Discuss the nutrient needs of poultry for maintenance, growth, and reproduction. 2. Identify chief sources of energy for poultry and symptoms of energy deficient diets. 3. Explain the role of amino acids as essential nutrients for growth and development and describe symptoms of amino acid deficiencies. 4. Define macrominerals and trace minerals and list examples of each. 5. Explain the function and importance of vitamins in the diet and identify symptoms of vitamin deficiencies in chicks.
What are the nutrient needs of poultry for maintenance, growth, and reproduction? Nutrients are substances used by an animal for growth and development of its cells, organs, and tissues. Nutrient maintenance requirements in poultry are defined as the total nutrients needed for body functioning without any gain or loss in body weight and productive activity.
A. The minimum requirement level is called the basal maintenance requirement. Basal requirements are needed to: 1. maintain body temperature 2. keep body processes functional 3. allow for minimal movement 4. repair damaged cells or tissue
B. Maintenance requirements are influenced by: 1. exercise 2. weather 3. stress 4. health 5. body size 6. temperament 7. level of production 8. individual variation
C. Nutritive needs for growth are influenced by: 1. age 2. breed 3. sex 4. disease —nutritive needs increase with breeding stock. D. Adequate vitamins and minerals are important for growth. Growth can be defined as an increase in size of bones, muscles, internal organs, or other parts of the body. In poultry, vitamins and minerals are needed for hatchability and embryo development.
What are the chief sources of energy for poultry and symptoms of energy deficient diets? Energy for poultry is derived in feedstuffs in the form of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. A. Carbohydrates supply the majority of energy for growth and development because of their abundance and cheaper cost. Catabolism is the oxidation of nutrients which releases energy for fulfilling the body’s immediate demands.
B. A protein supplement, usually soybean meal, is commonly mixed with poultry feed to provide a balanced ration. C. Corn is the primary feed for poultry and serves as the main energy source. D. A deficiency in the diet may have the following symptoms: 1. slow or stunted growth 2. loss of body tissue 3. lowered production of meat or eggs 4. decreased motility
What is the role of amino acids as essential nutrients for growth and development and what are symptoms of amino acid deficiencies? Proteins are organic compounds made up of amino acids. A. Amino acids contain carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and iron. B. Proteins supply the substance that is needed to build and maintain body tissues. C. Twenty-three amino acids have been found in protein. Ten of the amino acids are essential, the others are synthesized in the animal’s body from these ten in a process called anabolism.
D. Without the proper amino acids, deficiency can result. Symptoms of amino acid deficiency are: 1. low birth weight of young 2. anorexia (low food intake) 3. slow growth rate 4. low milk production 5. edema (abnormal fluid accumulation) 6. anemia (low red blood cell count)
What are macrominerals and trace minerals and what specific minerals fit each definition? Macrominerals are minerals that are needed in larger amounts for proper health, growth, and reproduction. Trace minerals are needed in smaller amounts for proper animal health. A. Examples of macrominerals needed for poultry are: 1. Calcium 2. Chlorine 3. Magnesium 4. Phosphorus 5. Potassium 6. Sodium
B. Examples of trace minerals needed for poultry are: 1. Copper 2. Iodine 3. Iron 4. Manganese 5. Selenium 6. Zinc
What is the function and importance of vitamins in the diet and what are vitamin deficiency symptoms in chicks? Vitamins are organic compounds required in minute amounts for normal growth, production, reproduction, and health. A. Vitamins regulate body processes, help the body resist disease, and improve health in general. B. Vitamins are either fat soluble (stored in body fat and released when needed), or water soluble (dissolved by water and need to be replaced each day). C. Essential vitamins include A, D3, E, K, Biotin, Choline, Folacin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, Riboflavin, Thiamin, B-6, and B-12.
D. Symptoms of vitamin deficiency include: 1. Slow or poor growth 2. Poor reproduction 3. decreased production of meat or eggs 4. anorexia 5. edema 6. skin, feather problems 7. decreased appetite and diarrhea
Review/Summary What are the nutrient needs of poultry for maintenance, growth, and reproduction? What are the chief sources of energy for poultry and symptoms of energy deficient diets? What is the role of amino acids as essential nutrients for growth and development and what are symptoms of amino acid deficiencies? What are macrominerals and trace minerals and what specific minerals fit each definition? What is the function and importance of vitamins in the diet and what are vitamin deficiency symptoms in chicks?