Presentation on theme: "Mining and Sustainability in the ACP countries: the environmental and social challenges Håkan Tarras-Wahlberg Swedish Geological AB 13 December 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Mining and Sustainability in the ACP countries: the environmental and social challenges Håkan Tarras-Wahlberg Swedish Geological AB 13 December 2010
when the ores are washed, the water that has been used poisons the brooks and streams, and either destroys the fish or drives them away if we remove metals from the service of man, all methods of protecting and sustaining health and more carefully preserving the course of life are done away with (transl. Hoover and Hoover ) This is not exactly new….: Agricola, 1556 (De Re Metallica)
Environmental impacts and prevention Socio-economic impacts and prevention Planning for closure Small-scale and artisanal mining The way forward - suggestions Disposition of presentation
Environmental impacts: Destruction of natural habitat e.g. Copperbelt, Zambia: ~0.3 % of area covered by mines & waste e.g. Marine diamonds, South Africa & Namibia
Environmental impacts: Solid waste and contaminants Copperbelt, Zambia: Env. liabilities or resources? Copperbelt, Zambia: Cobalt laden stream No industry produces more waste....
Environmental impacts: Tailings dam failures Merriesspruit, South Africa Small scale mining – also contributes to dam failures 1-2 major cases per year....
Environmental impacts: Acid Rock Drainage e.g. Pueblo Viejo, Rep. Dominicana low pH, high conc. of dissolved metals Among the most troublesome issues...
Environmental impacts: Surface water pollution Cyanide Hg Metals, process chemicals and turbidity...
Environmental impacts: Soil & air pollution Dust, metals, gases e.g. Kabwe, Zambia
Environmental impacts: Land subscidence & blasting Coal strip mining, S. Africa Cracked house, Mufulira, Zambia
Environmental impacts: Erosion, landscape disruption & radioactivity Coastal diamonds, South Africa Yellow cake Open pit gold mining, Ghana
Environmental impacts: General industrial issues Metal scrap, hydraulic oils, hydro carbons etc...
Environmental monitoring & control Desk top work, field work, laboratory work, followed by analysis... What are the impacts?
Socio-economic impacts: Mining Communities Mining companies now rarely take on all societal needs of a mining community, the transition is difficult: e.g. experiences in Zambia & Zimbabwe
Socio-economic impacts: Consultation & Disclosure The need to provide affected parties with adequate and prior information, enabling them to participate in planning is accepted best practice...
Socio-economic impacts: Distribution of impacts & benefits Billion USD Mines are often important to the national economy – what about the local level?
Socio-economic impacts: Land use conflict Globally, legal systems differ but usually, surface rights and rights to minerals are seperated. This leads to misunderstandings and conflicts...
Socio-economic monitoring & control Desk top work and field surveys, followed by analysis... What are the impacts?
Artisanal and small scale miners: e.g. Salt mining in Ghana e.g. Alluvial gold mining in Papua New Guinea
Most agree that ASM is poverty driven... Illegal Dangerous Env. & social impacts Hinders investment & development Destroys ore deposits Short-sighted / jackpot mentality Morally right Important livelihood for many Engine for development & biz development Utilises resources that cannot otherwise be mined Perceptions of ASM differ:
Planning for Closure: e.g. Madagascar e.g. Ghana Needs to start allready at planning stage & funds should be set aside..
Way Forward: Strong & competent institutions Building & strengthening institutions is a never ending task..
Way Forward: Clear/transparent allocation of rights to explore & mine The very first step in the process, it must be transparent and fair..
Way Forward: Promote responsible investments e.g. KCCL in Uganda - Cobalt extraction from waste, leading to a major environmental clean up: win-win
Way Forward: Development of domestic expertise & companies e.g. In PNG, the Wau small scale mining school trains new entrepreneurs in gold mining e.g. In Ghana, local expertise in rehabilitation and revegetation contribute to more succeful mine closures
Way Forward: Improved public knowledge and participation e.g. In Kabwe, Zambia, efforts to improve awareness and nutritional status among local communities have proven to be more effective and cost-effective than physical measures of remediation