2We Use a Variety of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Fossil fuels (coal)Metallic minerals (aluminum, iron, copper)Nonmetallic minerals (sand, gravel, limestone)OreHigh-grade oreLow-grade oreImportance and examples of nonrenewable metal and nonmetal mineral resources
3Mineral Use Has Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages of the processes of mining and converting minerals into useful productsGenerates significant income and tax revenueProvides employmentDisadvantagesUse a lot of energyDisturbs the land and causes erosion
4There Are Several Ways to Remove Mineral Deposits (1) Surface miningShallow deposits removedSubsurface miningDeep deposits removedType of surface mining used depends onResource being soughtLocal topography
5There Are Several Ways to Remove Mineral Deposits (2) Types of surface miningOpen-pit miningStrip miningContour miningMountaintop removal
6Natural Capital Degradation: Open-Pit Mine in Western Australia
7Natural Capital Degradation: Contour Strip Mining Used in Hilly or Mountainous Region
8Natural Capital Degradation: Mountaintop Coal Mining in West Virginia, U.S.
9Mining Has Harmful Environmental Effects (1) Scarring and disruption of the land surfaceE.g., spoils banksLoss of rivers and streamsSubsidenceCollapse of land above some underground mines
10Mining Has Harmful Environmental Effects (2) Major pollution of water and airEffect on aquatic lifeLarge amounts of solid waste10
11Banks of Waste or Spoils Created by Coal Area Strip Mining in Colorado, U.S.
13Ecological Restoration of a Mining Site in New Jersey, U.S.
14Removing Metals from Ores Has Harmful Environmental Effects (1) Ore extracted by miningOre mineral (containing the desired metal and gangue)Gangue (waste material)Smelting (process of heating ores to release metals)Water pollution
15Removing Metals from Ores Has Harmful Environmental Effects (2) Liquid and solid hazardous wastes producedUse of cyanide salt of extract gold from its oreSummitville gold mine: Colorado, U.S.
16Natural Capital Degradation: Summitville Gold Mining Site in Colorado, U.S.
17Mineral Resources Are Distributed Unevenly (1) Most of the nonrenewable mineral resources supplied byUnited StatesCanadaRussiaSouth AfricaAustralia
18Mineral Resources Are Distributed Unevenly (2) Strategic metal resources (essential for the country’s economy and military strength)Manganese (Mn)Cobalt (Co)Chromium (Cr)Platinum (Pt)
19Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be Economically Depleted Future supply depends onActual or potential supply of the mineralRate at which it is usedWhen it becomes economically depletedRecycle or reuse existing suppliesWaste lessUse lessFind a substituteDo without
20Natural Capital Depletion: Depletion Curves for a Nonrenewable Resource
21Market Prices Affect Supplies of Nonrenewable Minerals Subsidies and tax breaks to mining companies keep mineral prices artificially lowDoes this promote economic growth and national security?Scarce investment capital hinders the development of new supplies of mineral resources
22Is Mining Lower-Grade Ores the Answer? Factors that limit the mining of lower-grade oresIncreased cost of mining and processing larger volumes of oreAvailability of freshwaterEnvironmental impactImprove mining technologyUse microorganisms, in situSlow processWhat about genetic engineering of the microbes?
23Can We Extend Supplies by Getting More Minerals from the Ocean? (1) Mineral resources dissolved in the ocean-low concentrationsDeposits of minerals in sediments along the shallow continental shelf and near shorelines
24Can We Extend Supplies by Getting More Minerals from the Ocean? (2) Hydrothermal ore depositsMetals from the ocean floor: manganese nodulesEffect of mining on aquatic lifeEnvironmental impact
25We Can Find Substitutes for Some Scarce Mineral Resources (1) Materials revolutionNanotechnologySiliconHigh-strength plasticsDrawbacks?
26We Can Find Substitutes for Some Scarce Mineral Resources (2) Substitution is not a cure-allPt: industrial catalystCr: essential ingredient of stainless steel
27We Can Recycle and Reuse Valuable Metals RecyclingLower environmental impact than mining and processing metals from oresReuse