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BELLWORK How are mineral resources accessed?. MINING OF MINERALS.

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Presentation on theme: "BELLWORK How are mineral resources accessed?. MINING OF MINERALS."— Presentation transcript:

1 BELLWORK How are mineral resources accessed?

2 MINING OF MINERALS

3 TARGET #20- I CAN IDENTIFY WHAT MINING INVOLVES Mining involves breaking into the ground to gain access to minerals, fossil fuel, or water, and extracting them. Used in resources like building materials, wiring, appliances, clothing, fertilizers One goal: to locate areas of concentrated resources Materials mined fall into one of three categories Metallic Minerals Non-metallic minerals Fuel and Water

4 TARGET #21- I CAN STATE EXAMPLES OF METALLIC MINERALS TARGET #22- I CAN DEFINE THE TERM ORE Metallic minerals Metals are a part of minerals or groups of minerals Ore: a mineral or group of minerals that is mined so that a metal or metals can be removed from it Concentration of metal must be a certain level Ex: copper, iron, lead, gold, silver, aluminum, and tantalite

5 TARGET #23- I CAN IDENTIFY EXAMPLES OF NONMETALLIC MINERALS Nonmetallic Minerals May contain mineral as a chemical component, but the material is not mined for metal Ex: sand and gravel, limestone, salt, gemstones

6 TARGET #24- I CAN IDENTIFY EXAMPLES OF MINED FUELS Fuel and Water Uranium is mined for use in the generation of nuclear power Coal is mined like other minerals to provide energy Other materials include petroleum, natural gas, oil sands, and methane hydrates

7 MINING METHODS- BACKGROUND Mining companies have developed many techniques to access resources close to the surface of Earth, deep underground, and even underwater Types of Mining Methods Strip Mining Subsurface Mining Open Pit Mining Mountain Top Removal Solution Mining Placer Mining Undersea Mining

8 TARGET #25- I CAN DESCRIBE DIFFERENT MINING METHODS Strip Mining Most effective method Process Layers of surface soil and rock are removed from large areas to expose the resource Heavy machinery removes the soil and rock The resource is extracted The soil and rock are replaced Commonly used to collect coal, sand, and gravel

9 Subsurface Mining Used when a resources occurs in concentrated pockets Process Vertical shafts are dug deep into the ground A network of horizontal tunnels are dug or blasted out to follow deposits of the resource The resource is removed and transported out of the mine Used for metals like zinc, lead, nickel, tin, gold, copper, and uranium Used for non-metals like diamonds and salt

10 Open Pit Mining Used when a mineral is widely and evenly distributed throughout rock formation, or when the ground is unsuitable for tunneling Process A large hole is dug and the ore is removed along with unwanted rock Used for copper, iron, gold, diamonds, and coal When used for materials like granite, marble, or slate, method is referred to as a quarry

11 Mountaintop Removal Used primarily for coal mining in the Appalachian Mountains Process 1 st - the forests are clear-cut and the timber is sold or burned 2 nd - Topsoil is removed and rock is blasted away to expose the resource Continued process of blasting and extraction to remove hundreds of vertical feet of mountaintop Waste rock is transported to nearby valleys or areas that were previously mined

12 Placer Mining Can be done when weathering and other geologic processes can cause metals and gems to break free and be carried along by river currents Process Miner must sift through material in modern or ancient riverbed deposits Use of running water to separate light-weight mud and gravel from heavier valuable minerals. Useful for collecting materials like gold

13 APPLY CONCEPTS A mining geologist locates a horizontal seam of coal close to the surface. What type of method will the mining company most likely use to extract it? Explain your answer.

14 BELLWORK How can we reduce the negative impacts of mining and manage mined resources?

15 MINING IMPACTS & REGULATION

16 NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF MINING- BACKGROUND Mining is an important industry that provides the areas with an enormous amount of revenue and jobs for many people Activities associated with mining, such as destroying forests, disrupting soil, and using chemicals to strip materials from rocks, have environmental effects that have not been historically well managed.

17 EROSION- BACKGROUND Erosion is a natural process that occurs continuously on Earth’s surface Examples Wind Precipitation Flowing water Moves loose soil particles from one area to another

18 TARGET #26- I CAN STATE HOW MINING LEADS TO UNCONTROLLED SOIL EROSION Plants help keep erosion in check because their roots hold soil together Plants are removed to do any mining that is done along earth’s surface When people disturb a large area of land, erosion occurs faster than soil can be replaced Example Mountaintop removal leaves areas prone to mudslides & flashfloods

19 TARGET #27- I CAN STATE HOW EXCESSIVE EROSION IMPACTS ECOSYSTEMS Excessive erosion & disturbance of waterways leads to problems for both ecosystems and nearby communities Placer mining, strip mining, and mountain top removal can lead to clogged waterways due to excessive sediment and debris Some habitats may become flooded or sunlight can be blocked from reaching aquatic plants

20 TARGET #28- I CAN EXPLAIN HOW SURFACE MINING METHODS IMPACT NATURAL WATER SOURCES Strip, subsurface, and open pit mining expose a large amount of rock to air If iron sulfide is present in the rocks, it will form sulfuric acid when it interacts with oxygen Can leak into the ground water, streams, or lakes due to runoff Known as acid drainage A natural process that is accelerated due to mining acids associated can be toxic to wildlife and can make bodies of water unsuitable for drinking or for recreation

21 TARGET #29- I CAN EXPLAIN HOW SURFACE MINING METHODS IMPACT THE ATMOSPHERE Open pit mining and mountaintop removal can cause air pollution as metal particles are released into the atmosphere Includes removal and extraction process Miners experience the most pollution Coal miners usually suffer from a type of illness called “black lung disease”

22 EXPLAIN Describe two ways that mines can continue to cause damage to communities even after mining is complete.

23 TARGET #30- I CAN SUMMARIZE THE SOCIAL IMPACTS MINING HAS ON THE HUMAN POPULATION Mining is relied upon for jobs and revenue, however, mining can have many negative effects on people living in surrounding communities Property Damage Blasts from mountaintop removal crack house foundations and walls Floods damage properties Loose rock tumbles into yards and homes Forests and landscapes are lost Landowners are pressured to sell their land to mining companies Collapse of subsurface mines can lead to sinkholes

24 Environmental Damage & Conflicts Can bring job opportunities and a lot of money into poor areas of the world Rely on land and water resources Violent conflicts can arise over rights to lands that hold valuable minerals and the wealth they generate Ex: Trade of coltain in the Congo

25 ESSENTIAL CONCEPT The ability to access minerals, extract metals from them, and process the metals allows us to make products that contribute greatly to modern life. But the toll that mining takes on ecosystems and the pollutants produced from processing metals have also contributed to many of the environmental problems we face today. What are some examples of environmental problems that we face related to mining?


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