3 Target #20- I can identify what mining involves Mining involves breaking into the ground to gain access to minerals, fossil fuel, or water, and extracting them.Used in resources like building materials, wiring, appliances, clothing, fertilizersOne goal: to locate areas of concentrated resourcesMaterials mined fall into one of three categoriesMetallic MineralsNon-metallic mineralsFuel and Water
4 Target #21- I can state examples of metallic minerals Target #22- I can define the term ore Metals are a part of minerals or groups of mineralsOre: a mineral or group of minerals that is mined so that a metal or metals can be removed from itConcentration of metal must be a certain levelEx: copper, iron, lead, gold, silver, aluminum, and tantalite
5 Target #23- I can Identify examples of nonmetallic minerals May contain mineral as a chemical component, but the material is not mined for metalEx: sand and gravel, limestone, salt, gemstones
6 Target #24- I can identify examples of mined fuels Fuel and WaterUranium is mined for use in the generation of nuclear powerCoal is mined like other minerals to provide energyOther materials include petroleum, natural gas, oil sands, and methane hydrates
7 Mining Methods- Background Mining companies have developed many techniques to access resources close to the surface of Earth, deep underground, and even underwaterTypes of Mining MethodsStrip MiningSubsurface MiningOpen Pit MiningMountain Top RemovalSolution MiningPlacer MiningUndersea Mining
8 Target #25- I can describe different mining methods Strip MiningMost effective methodProcessLayers of surface soil and rock are removed from large areas to expose the resourceHeavy machinery removes the soil and rockThe resource is extractedThe soil and rock are replacedCommonly used to collect coal, sand, and gravel
9 Subsurface Mining Used when a resources occurs in concentrated pockets ProcessVertical shafts are dug deep into the groundA network of horizontal tunnels are dug or blasted out to follow deposits of the resourceThe resource is removed and transported out of the mineUsed for metals like zinc, lead, nickel, tin, gold, copper, and uraniumUsed for non-metals like diamonds and salt
10 Open Pit MiningUsed when a mineral is widely and evenly distributed throughout rock formation, or when the ground is unsuitable for tunnelingProcessA large hole is dug and the ore is removed along with unwanted rockUsed for copper, iron, gold, diamonds, and coalWhen used for materials like granite, marble, or slate, method is referred to as a quarry
11 Mountaintop RemovalUsed primarily for coal mining in the Appalachian MountainsProcess1st- the forests are clear-cut and the timber is sold or burned2nd- Topsoil is removed and rock is blasted away to expose the resourceContinued process of blasting and extraction to remove hundreds of vertical feet of mountaintopWaste rock is transported to nearby valleys or areas that were previously mined
12 Placer MiningCan be done when weathering and other geologic processes can cause metals and gems to break free and be carried along by river currentsProcessMiner must sift through material in modern or ancient riverbed depositsUse of running water to separate light-weight mud and gravel from heavier valuable minerals.Useful for collecting materials like gold
13 Apply ConceptsA mining geologist locates a horizontal seam of coal close to the surface. What type of method will the mining company most likely use to extract it? Explain your answer.
14 BellworkHow can we reduce the negative impacts of mining and manage mined resources?
16 Negative Impacts of Mining- Background Mining is an important industry that provides the areas with an enormous amount of revenue and jobs for many peopleActivities associated with mining, such as destroying forests, disrupting soil, and using chemicals to strip materials from rocks, have environmental effects that have not been historically well managed.
17 Erosion- BackgroundErosion is a natural process that occurs continuously on Earth’s surfaceExamplesWindPrecipitationFlowing waterMoves loose soil particles from one area to another
18 Target #26- I can state how mining leads to uncontrolled soil erosion Plants help keep erosion in check because their roots hold soil togetherPlants are removed to do any mining that is done along earth’s surfaceWhen people disturb a large area of land, erosion occurs faster than soil can be replacedExampleMountaintop removal leaves areas prone to mudslides & flashfloods
19 Target #27- I can state how excessive erosion impacts ecosystems Excessive erosion & disturbance of waterways leads to problems for both ecosystems and nearby communitiesPlacer mining, strip mining, and mountain top removal can lead to clogged waterways due to excessive sediment and debrisSome habitats may become flooded or sunlight can be blocked from reaching aquatic plants
20 Target #28- I can explain how surface mining methods impact natural water sources Strip, subsurface, and open pit mining expose a large amount of rock to airIf iron sulfide is present in the rocks, it will form sulfuric acid when it interacts with oxygenCan leak into the ground water, streams, or lakes due to runoffKnown as acid drainageA natural process that is accelerated due to miningacids associated can be toxic to wildlife and can make bodies of water unsuitable for drinking or for recreation
21 Target #29- I can explain how surface mining methods impact the atmosphere Open pit mining and mountaintop removal can cause air pollution as metal particles are released into the atmosphereIncludes removal and extraction processMiners experience the most pollutionCoal miners usually suffer from a type of illness called “black lung disease”
22 ExplainDescribe two ways that mines can continue to cause damage to communities even after mining is complete.
23 Mining is relied upon for jobs and revenue, however, mining can have many negative effects on people living in surrounding communitiesProperty DamageBlasts from mountaintop removal crack house foundations and wallsFloods damage propertiesLoose rock tumbles into yards and homesForests and landscapes are lostLandowners are pressured to sell their land to mining companiesCollapse of subsurface mines can lead to sinkholesTarget #30- I can summarize the social impacts mining has on the human population
24 Environmental Damage & Conflicts Can bring job opportunities and a lot of money into poor areas of the worldRely on land and water resourcesViolent conflicts can arise over rights to lands that hold valuable minerals and the wealth they generateEx: Trade of coltain in the Congo
25 Essential ConceptThe ability to access minerals, extract metals from them, and process the metals allows us to make products that contribute greatly to modern life. But the toll that mining takes on ecosystems and the pollutants produced from processing metals have also contributed to many of the environmental problems we face today.What are some examples of environmental problems that we face related to mining?