Presentation on theme: "5.3 – 3 Mining. Canada is known for its mineral wealth. Three kinds are: 1.metallic mineral – a mineral that is a metal. (iron, nickel, copper) 2. non-metallic."— Presentation transcript:
Canada is known for its mineral wealth. Three kinds are: 1.metallic mineral – a mineral that is a metal. (iron, nickel, copper) 2. non-metallic mineral – a mineral that is not a metal. (potash, salt) 3. Fuel mineral – a fossil fuel mineral. (coal, oil, natural gas)
Finding the Minerals All rocks contain minerals – but only a few places have enough to justify a mine. Ore – the rock that contains enough of a mineral that makes it worthwhile to develop a mine. How are minerals found? Use tools that detect a magnetic field from certain metallic minerals. Search for anomalies – characteristics of rock that are different from surrounding rock.(staining) Know what type of rock certain minerals are found in and find that type. (sedimentary – fuel; igneous – metallic)
Mining and the Economy Mining supplies raw materials for secondary industry. It provides jobs in mining communities. (320,000) Contributes to the local GDP. (NL – 8.6% from mining) Contributes to Canada’s economy. (about $80 billion) Helps the balance of trade – difference between imports and exports. (2010 - $85 B in exports - $67 B in imports)
IMPACT OF MINING ON NATURAL SYSTEMS Mining occurs on less than 0.03% of land but has a big ecological footprint. Figure 6.45 The Panda Ekati diamond mine is located in the Northwest Territories. Six lakes had to be drained to develop the mine, and another one was used for the storage of mine waste.
Slag – molten waste material from nickel smelting. Tailings – finely ground- up rock left over after the mineral has been extracted. Acid rain – precipitation that is highly acidic due to pollutants. Refining – part of the process that removes impurities when metal is separated from rock ore. Smelting – the heating and melting of ore to extract a pure metal.
How does acid rain threaten the natural systems? Kills or delays the growth of trees. Makes soils less fertile. Results in dead lakes – fish cannot live in them. Contaminates the food and water people consume.
Mineral Sustainability Minerals are non-renewable resources, they cannot be developed sustainably so that they last into the future. However there are still things we can do: Reduce mineral use Recycle mineral-based products Use technology to waste less minerals We can also do things to reduce the affects on natural systems: Restore old mines to their natural landscape. Reduce pollutants from mining smelters. (less acid rain) Reduce slag and tailings from mineral refining.