2a mining company is required to post funds before beginning a mining project. decrease in taxes programbond forfeiture programincrease in taxes programno programs exist
3The Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act ensure that __________ from mines do not threaten water quality.OresContaminantsMineralsthey do nothing for water quality
4The land recovery process required of mine operators is called ________ do nothing at allopen pitsreclamationsubsidence
5Acid mine drainage is contaminated _____ that results when acid dissolves toxic minerals that exist in mine waste.airsoilsaltwater
6A serious hazard of coal mining that can ignite and possibly burn for years is/are __________ underground firessubsidenceforest fireshouse fires
7Wildlife ________are protected by the Endangered Species Act only foodonly waterhabitatsthey are not protected by this act at all
8The sinking of regions of the ground with little or no horizontal movement is called ________ erosionreclamationsubsidenceunderground fires
9Large piles of excess rock from mines are called _________ soil degrationsubsidencedumpsplacer
10The process where crushed ore is melted at high temperatures to separate impurities from molten metal is called_______.under sea miningsolar evaporationGANGsmelting
11Bends in rivers often have ____. stream placersplacer depositsrock depositsthe bends never collect any deposits
12Solution mining is an economical mining method if mineral ores are ____ in water flammablenon solublesolubleinorganic
13Networks of entries in subsurface coal mines are called ______ roomspillarscabinhouse
14An open pit used to mine minerals like granite, limestone and marble near the surface is called a_________.solution miningsurface coal miningquarrying
15The second part of surface coal mining is to remove rocks that cover coal seams near the surface are called _______. It will be later put back during reclamationSubsidenceplacer depositoverburdenGANG
16The first step in finding a(n) _______ is exploring rock for mineralization. keyslagore depositsubsidence
17A floating barge on which buckets fixed onto a conveyor excavate sediments is called a(n) _____. This can be a good way to mine gold.Dredgesmeltingopen pit miningEvaporation
18Two or more atoms chemically bonded together form a(n) _______ elementcompoundatommixture
19A material that bonds with impurities and separates them from molten metal during smelting is called a___..fluxslaggangdiamond
21Gold, silver, and copper that occur in elemental form are called _____. non native elementsnative elementsforeign elementsimmigrants
22Ore deposits formed in cracks in rocks are called _______ veinsvesselsplacer depositsmelting
23The _____ sets standards to minimize the surface effects of coal mining on the environment. Clean Water ActComprehensive Response Compensation and Liability ActSurface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977Safe Drinking Water Act
24The _____ regulates the release of hazardous substances into the air, soil, and water by mining. Clean Water ActComprehensive Response Compensation and Liability ActSurface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977Safe Drinking Water Act
25What can contaminate a river during dredging? it does not have any negative effectsplacer depositssea watermuddy sediments
26Surface mining can cause only air pollution.both air and noise pollution.only noise pollution.neither air nor noise pollution.
27Reclamation is the process of removing coal from a subsurface seam.extracting ore minerals from gangue minerals.returning land to its original or better condition after mining.protecting the habitats of local wildlife.
28From whom must mining companies obtain permits before mining a site? state and federal agenciesstate agencies onlyfederal agencies onlythey do not need permits
29Which of the following is not a regulation mining companies must follow? the Clean Water Actthe Safe Drinking Water Actthe Hazardous Products Actthe Endangered Species Act
30Collapse of _____ can lead to subsidence. solar evaporation pondsopen-pit minespillars in abandoned minesplacer deposits
31Which of the following is a water contaminant that can cause acid mine drainage? acid rain is not realMethanecarbon dioxidesulfuric acid
32A quarry also could be called an open pit.a longwall.the overburden.a pillar.
33The layer of impurities on top of molten metal that forms during smelting is called slag.dredge.waste.
34Which of the following would not likely be mined using solution mining? GypsumSaltPotashsulfur
35Placer deposits are surface mineral deposits that have been concentrated by surface mining.movement of wind and water.subsurface mining.evaporation and condensation.
36Through _____, mining companies can identify areas where there may be valuable mineral resources. mineral explorationsubsurface miningSmeltingdredging
37Which of the following is not a method of subsurface mining? room-and-pillar miningsolution mininglongwall miningopen-pit mining
38Acid mine drainage harms or kills aquatic life. is no big deal purifies streams.is unregulated in the United States.
39Dredging streambeds may be an effective technique for mining salt.gold.coal.sulfur.
40The first step in surface coal mining is to remove and set aside the soil that covers the area to be mined.to use heavy equipment to mine the land.to test to see if quarrying would be more effective.to make cuts in the coal for easier removal.
41Gangue or GANG minerals are valued for their rarity and durability.have no commercial value.are the most difficult to mine.are native elements.
42What must hot subsurface waters contain in order to be considered hydrothermal solutions? crystallized mineralsgangue mineralsdissolved mineralsinorganic solids
43What is one property that may be used to distinguish metallic from nonmetallic minerals? cost to extractcarbon contentValueelectrical conductivity
44Which of the following is not one of the ways that ore minerals may form? cooling of magmacirculation of hydrothermal solutions through rocksflooding of empty streambeds and riversevaporation of water that contains salts
45Which of the following is not a characteristic of a mineral? naturally occurringusually an inorganic solidatoms in random geometric patternsorderly internal structure
46Which of the following are minerals that contain valuable substances? native mineralsgangue mineralsore mineralslongwalls
47Evaporates most commonly form in arid regions where rates of evaporation are high.rain forests where rates of evaporation are low.cold regions that receive significant snowfall.an area with frequent volcanic activity.
48Extended response questions: How must soil be handled during surface coal mining to minimize environmental damage?What potential environmental problem caused by the smelting process must be controlled? How can this be done?How can surface mining completely transform ecosystems, even after reclamation?Explain reclamation and why it is necessary?Explain 3 of the 7 negative impacts of mining. 6pts