Presentation on theme: "The concept of Integrated Flood Management Regional Programme on Disaster Risk Reduction in South East Europe Training workshop on flood risk assessment."— Presentation transcript:
The concept of Integrated Flood Management Regional Programme on Disaster Risk Reduction in South East Europe Training workshop on flood risk assessment 27 September – 1 October 2010 Istanbul, Turkey Tommaso Abrate Climate and Water Department World Meteorological Organization
Plan of the presentation WMOs role The principles of Integrated Flood Management
WorldMeteorologicalOrganizationWorldMeteorologicalOrganization The UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behaviour of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.
WMOs objectives Facilitate worldwide cooperation in the field of meteorology and hydrology and their application to the benefit of all; Promote the establishment and maintenance of systems for the rapid exchange of data information in meteorology, climatology and hydrology; Promote standardization of observations and ensure the uniform publication of observations and statistics; Further the application of meteorology, climatology and hydrology to development issues (transportation, water management, agriculture, etc.); Encourage research and training, and assist in coordinating their international aspects.
Hydrology and Water Resources Programme (HWRP Monitoring the state of their countries and, as a consequence, of the world's freshwater resources; Measuring basic hydrological elements from networks of hydrological and meteorological stations; Collecting, processing, storing, retrieving and publishing hydrological data, including data on the quantity and quality of both surface water and groundwater; Providing data and information for use by planners and water managers; Managing water-related risks, particularly flood and drought management; Installing and operating hydrological forecasting systems; Integrating meteorological and climatological information and forecasts into water resources management.
Programme structure Programme on Basic Systems in Hydrology Programme on Hydrological Forecasting in Water Resources Management Programme on Capacity-building in Hydrology and Water Resources Management Programme on Cooperation in Water- related Issues
Main activities QMF - Hydrology WHYCOS WMO Flood Initiative –APFM –FFGS HOMS Capacity building
Disaster Risk Reduction Programme (DRR) Development, improvement and sustainability of early warning systems, of weather-, water-, climate-related hazards; Development, improvement and sustainability of applications of modern technologies for providing hazard information for risk assessment; Development and delivery of warnings, specialized forecasts and other products; Stimulate a culture of disaster preparedness through strengthening of capacities; Strengthen WMO and NMHSs cooperation and partnerships for implementation of disaster risk reduction.
Hazards, risks and disasters Natural hazards are unavoidable but Disasters are caused by social attitudes and developmental processes that increase vulnerability
Living in the flood zone Settling in flood zone has great advantages Flooding occurs in flood zones No measure, alone or in combination with others, can eliminate flooding We must adapt the use and land management to the benefits, risks and limitations placed in flood areas
Beneficial aspects of floods Recharging water sources (recharge groundwater, restock man-made reservoirs) Agriculture (provide nutrients and sediments) Fishery (provide an ecological trigger for spawning and migration) Rejuvenation of the river ecosystem (provide seasonal variability and variable sediment, wash down pollutants and contaminants, flush out organic substances) Provide livelihood opportunities
Damages caused by floods increase... hand in hand with GDP US$ bn Sources: GDP Groningen growth and development centre (www.ggdc.net) Maddison archivewww.ggdc.net Flood losses Munich Re GDP Flood losses Total Insured
P 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Richer countries Poorer countries Economic losses Losses as percentage of GDP Billion US$ Percentage of GDP Losses caused by natural disasters Total value and percentage of GDP in richer and poorer countries (1985-1999) Fonte: adattato da MunichRe, 1999
Expected climate change impacts Increase in temperature, evaporation and sea level Increased rainfall variability Increased risk of flooding and water stress Pollution and water quality Negative impacts on the hydrological cycle will be higher than positive
Projected impact on annual mean flow (2080-2100)
Traditional Flood Management Practices Physical separation of rivers from populations and goods Capacity enhancement of rivers Storage and retention of runoff Emergency management Flood recovery
Weakness of the traditional approach Case-by-case and ad-hoc approach (local and partial solutions) Focused on only part of the basin / river: rather than being mitigated the flood risk in only shifted Priority to 'control' rather than 'management Often developed as a result and in terms of a catastrophic historical event Reactive rather than proactive Based mainly on the structural measures Monodisciplinary
Weakness of the traditional approach Ignore the various spatial scales Does not consider the lessons of the past Tends to give a false sense of security Structural measures generally disturbed eco- system balance; Impact on the river & users elsewhere, Non-structural measures: weak coordination, Poor communication strategies, Limited or passive participation civil society.
Changing perceptions of floods Protection Myth of total control Limit and hinderance Opportunity Threat / act of God
Corte Madera Creek 1966: 250 yr return time event, concrete channel 1972: preserve the natural characteristics of the watercourse 1982: 100 yr return time event 1996: 40 yr return time event, minimize the use of concrete, preserve the recreational use Maximise the net benefits
New South Wales (1) 1810: identification of flood risk zones 1867: major flooding, levees and dikes are built 1900-1940 few events, attention threshold lowered 1955: 500M$ losses Planning Not only structural measures
New South Wales (2) State Emergency Service (1955) 1972: –Focus on emergency response –Lack of legal tools for an integrated flood management –Waek warning practices, lack of emergency evacuation plans and population awareness 1989: –Focus on flood management and early warning –More proactive, sensitization –Land use planning
Flood protection / Flood management PASTFUTURE Founding question How do we protect us? Which level of security? At which costs? Planning and measures Specific to one discipline Interdisciplinary Management of the resources Sectoral local Global approach SecurityNow, biased towards certain sectors Solidarity with future generations Balanced across a global system
New challenges for flood management Securing livelihoods Ecosystems protection and conservation Population growth Urban sprawl
Climate change and variability www.awitness.org cumulus.geol.iastate.edu / Changes ın decision making process Total security is a myth New challenges for flood management
Integrated flood mangement Water Resources Management Integrated Flood Management Risk Management Coastal Zones Management Land Management
A precondition: multidisciplinary cooperation Affected communities Information exchange / collaboration Insurance Specialized services in natural hazards Land management services Emergency and rescue services
Integrated flood managemen: overall objective Create a community than can protect itself with an optimal set of measures (both short and long term, structural and non structural)
Integrated flood managemen: objectives Sustainable development: balancing development needs and flood risks protection Maximizing net benefits from floodplains: ensure livelihood security and poverty alleviation thereby addressing vulnerability Minimizing loss of life: in particular through end-to-end FF&W systems and preparedness planning for extreme events Environmental preservation: ecosystem health & services
Net benefits Gain Derived from the activities and use of floodplains (agriculture, urban development, transportation, recreational use, etc.) Losses Direct damages and mid to long term impacts on environment and socio-economics > 0
The dimensions of IFMLaw hydrology Social sciences Time Space Scientific domains Basin National Local International Reconstruction and rehabilitation Planning Emergency Economy Engineering interdisciplinarity, flexibility, participation Low waters, lean, drought High waters floods
The Principles of Integrated Flood Management Manage the Water Cycle as a Whole Integrate Land and Water Management Manage Risk and Uncertainty Adopt a Best-Mix of Strategies. Ensure a Participatory Approach. Adopt Integrated Hazard Management Approaches.
Overview of functions in IFM Flood info/data incl. hydrol. Networks Ecosystem protection Design, Operation & Maintenance of flood defences and drainage system Land Use Planning Controls, floodplain zoning Forecasting and Warning Evacuation & Relief Pollution control Flood Fighting Liability for Flood Losses Rehabilitation Assessment of flood losses Flood Insurance Flood proofing & building regulation Public/Stakeholder Participation After flood During Flood Before flood Reservoir operation
Flood emergency management Avoid the exposure of critical activities from flooding and temporarily shift people and such activities Preparedness: to ensure effective response Response: to reduce adverse impacts during the flooding Recovery: to assist the affected community to rebuild itself
41 Integrated approach Disaster Potential disaster Potential disaster Crisis Management Crisis Management Vulnerability Innundation Flood Meteorology River Basin River corridor Surface water retention afforestation, augmentation of infiltration,... Structural protection measures increase discharge capacity, dikes, … Adapted land use agriculture, settlements, industrie, infrastructure, … Emergency response forecast, warning, evacuation, relief, … Source: FOEN
Final considerations Policy (and politics) are often reactive rather than proactive Av exceptional event is an opportunity to reconsider flood management policies Experts should promoted integrated and multidisciplinary approach to flood management