Presentation on theme: "Integrated Flood Management As a Development Policy"— Presentation transcript:
1Integrated Flood Management As a Development Policy WMOTraining Workshop on Integrated Flood Managementfor countries in Western Asia and the Arab region11-14 May 2009, Esteghlal Hotel, Tehran, IranIntegrated Flood ManagementAs a Development PolicyAVINASH TYAGIDirector, Climate and WaterWMO: Climate and Water Department
2Sustainable Development Development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” In the flood management context mainly on the viability of floodplain use in the long term
3Integrated Flood Management Flood Management in the context of Integrated Water Resources Management, aiming at:Sustainable development: balancing development needs and flood risksMaximizing net benefits from floodplains: ensure livelihood security and poverty alleviation thereby addressing vulnerabilityMinimizing loss of life: in particular through end-to-end FF&W Systems and preparedness planning for extreme eventsEnvironmental preservation: ecosystem health & services
4Integrated Flood Management Integrated Flood Management (IFM) refers to the integration of land and water management in a river basin using a combination of measures that focus on coping with floods within a framework of IWRM and adopting risk management principles while recognizing that floods have beneficial impacts and can never be fully controlled.
5Characteristics of IFM Recognition that a river basin is a dynamic system with many interactions/fluxes between land and water bodies
6Characteristics of IFM Linkages between upstream changesand downstream effects and vice-versaLand use plans and water management to be combined in synthesized plan through co-ordination between land management and water management authoritiesUpstream changes in land use can drastically change the characteristics of a flood and associated water quality and sediment transport characteristics. Upstream urbanization can cause an accentuation of flood peaks and their early occurrence in downstream reaches. Using low lying depressions that play an important role in flood attenuation for dumping solid waste may worsen hygienic conditions and increase flood peaks in downstream reaches during floods. Ignoring these linkages in the past has lead to failures. These linkages need to be recognized, understood and accounted for to lead to synergies in improving river basin performance in several different ways simultaneously. Taking advantage of these potential synergies will, however, require a wider perspective of the issues of development of the river basin in its entirety, rather than attempting to resolve local problems in an isolated manner.By adopting a functional approach to flood management, a problem orientation is an almost inevitable consequence. Taking a wider perspective can allow the situation to be viewed as one of opportunities, of looking for ways in which the performance of the basin as a whole can be enhanced.
7What is flood risk? Probability x Consequence Hazard x Exposure x VulnerabilityExample floods:Hazard: probability of a particular discharge or water level at a particular placeExposure: Land and assets in the inundation area of that floodVulnerability: ability/disability of the people or assets to withstand, cope with or recover from the negative effects of that flood
8Measures for Risk Reduction Reduce hazardReduce ExposureReduce VulnerabilityRetaining water where it falls (increasing infiltration, rooftop storing)Retention basins (natural wet lands or depressions, man made e.g., school play grounds, household underground tanksDams and reservoirsDiversion channelLand use management (e.g., house building codes in urban areas, infrastructure building practices, appropriate landscape planning)Structural measures on the river (Dykes, river training work such as channelization, flood walls, raised infrastructures such as roads and railways)Structural and non-structural measures/actions by individual (flood proofing)Land regulationFlood emergency measures (flood warning and evacuation)Physical: by improving the infrastructure, well-being, occupational opportunities and living environmentConstitutional: by facilitating equal participation opportunities, education and awareness, providing adequate skills and social support systemMotivational: by building awareness and facilitating self organisation
9IFM: Principles Risk Management Mitigation and Preparedness Response Recovery and rehabilitationResidual risks
10IFM: Principles Risk Management Water Cycle as a whole Flood and drought managementEffective use of flood watersGround water and surface water interaction in flood plains
11IFM: Principles Risk Management Water Cycle as a whole Multi-hazard approachParticularly within a basin where there is interaction between various hazard development mechanismsCross-sectoral integration of disaster management strategiesDisaster risk assessmentEarly warning and forecasts
12River basin as a planning unit IFM: PrinciplesRisk ManagementWater Cycle as a wholeMulti-hazard approachRiver basin as a planning unit
13River basin as a planning unit IFM: PrinciplesRisk ManagementWater Cycle as a wholeMulti-hazard approachRiver basin as a planning unitInter-disciplinary
14River basin as a planning unit Stakeholders participation IFM: PrinciplesRisk ManagementWater Cycle as a wholeMulti-hazard approachRiver basin as a planning unitInter-disciplinaryStakeholders participation
16Requirements of IFM Clear and objective policies Comprehensive assessment and understanding of development opportunities and flood risks;Multi-sectoral approach to reach the objectives;Appropriate legislation and regulations; andInnovative economic instruments.with a multidisciplinary approachAppropriate Institutional structures for proper coordination and linkages;Enabling participatory processes; andInformation management and exchange mechanisms.
17National Development Policy Natural resources management (including water resources for domestic, agriculture, fishery, and industryLand use management (agriculture, industry, dwelling, urban development, etc)Environmental management (conservation and modification)Risk management policies, andSocial development issues (living conditions, level of poverty, equity and fairness principles)
18National Flood Management Policy: The vision Why flood management needs to be improved;How risks due to floods are to be mitigated while making use of floodplains; andWhen specific goals would be achieved.
19National Flood Management Policy What role do the flood plains play in the economy of the country/region?What issues in National development vision/policy have relevance to the condition of floods or flooding and its management?How flood management can contribute to the national development?How flood risks can be appropriately factored in national development planning?How national development vision/policy should be aligned to the existing and future flood risks?How flood risks are shared between federal, state, and local governments on one hand and the individual on the other?What role do the different institutions play in flood management?
20Urban Flood Management Integrated with River Flood Management LAND USE PLANNINGStormWater ManagementPlansBasinFlood ManagementPrincipalesConceptsRisk ManagementSustainable Urban Drainage SystemsTotal Water Cycle ManagementIntegrated Flood ManagementIWRMSPATIAL PLANNINGCoastal Zone Management
21Flood Management Planning Process National development vision/policyNational flood management vision/policyBasin flood management vision and policyBeneficial and negative impacts of floodingRole of flooding in social, economic conditionLand useSurvey and AnalysisHydrological, meteorological, geomorphologic data, environmental dataSocial and economical data↓Hydro meteorological analysisHydraulic analysisDamage analysisFlood risk assessmentFloodManagementPlanningProcessSetting target for basin flood management planStrategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)Social Impact AssessmentEconomic analysisIdentification and selection of options to reduce flood risksBasin Flood Management PlanMonitoringProject implementation plan
22Global warming …….will hit through water Through climate change and the effects of e.g…- changes in the hydrological cycle and water balance- sea level rise- increased water temperaturesThrough increased climate variability in the form of more serious and frequent extremes, such as floods and droughtsSource:TJK
23Extreme Weather and Climate Events in IPCC AR4 Table TS.4. Recent trends, assessment of human influence on trends, and projections of extreme weather and climate events for which there is evidence of an observed late 20th-century trend. An asterisk in the column headed ‘D’ indicates that formal detection and attribution studies were used, along with expert judgement, to assess the likelihood of a discernible human influence. Where this is not available, assessments of likelihood of human influence are based on attribution results for changes in the mean of a variable or changes in physically related variables and/or on the qualitative similarity of observed and simulated changes, combined with expert judgement.
26Policy Robustness Indicators Affected parameters in relation to waterIFM Policy Principles conducive to sustainable adaptation policiesBalanced outlook on technical storage options including linkages to energy production and greenhouse gas emmissionsCombined flood and drought management plans, IWRM as framing conceptFood security and livelihood focusManaging all floods (smaller and extremes, riverine and coastal)Flood Risk Management and multihazard outlookProductive use of flood watersBest mix of structural and non-structural optionsParticipatory and river basin approachSnow cover storage, seasonality of flowsEvapotranspiration, Freshwater availabilityEvapotranspiration freshwater & coolingwater availabilityStreamflow, flood frequency, sediment transport, slope stabilityTable TS.4. Recent trends, assessment of human influence on trends, and projections of extreme weather and climate events for which there is evidence of an observed late 20th-century trend. An asterisk in the column headed ‘D’ indicates that formal detection and attribution studies were used, along with expert judgement, to assess the likelihood of a discernible human influence. Where this is not available, assessments of likelihood of human influence are based on attribution results for changes in the mean of a variable or changes in physically related variables and/or on the qualitative similarity of observed and simulated changes, combined with expert judgement.Freshwater availabilityStormsurge frequency
27World Climate Conference-3 Better climate information for a better future Geneva, Switzerland 31 August–4 September 2009Towards a Global Framework for Climate InformationTHANK YOU