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Section 1: Invention & Innovations

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1 Section 1: Invention & Innovations
Chapter 8 Section 1: Invention & Innovations

2 The Industrial Revolution
Began in ______in the 1700’s with changes in the ______ industry ______ began working together in mills using the power of flowing water to power their tools

3 Spinning Jenny, Water frame, & Power loom
Increase efficiency & profits Steam engine (who invented this? ______) Pumped water out of mines, ran textile machines, etc

4 The Birth of the US Textile Industry
Textile workers couldn’t move out of ______ & people could send drawings of textile machinery to other countries Interchangeable Parts- (define)______.

5 Interchangeable Parts
Eli ______ Contract to make 10,000 ______ in 2 years Took over 10 years & still had flaws Made all of the parts ______

6 The Cotton Gin Is a machine that ______ Important effects
______ depended on cotton as their major crop Planters needed more land Increased the number of ______ Cotton profit skyrocketed

7 Transportation & Communication
Roads First were carved out of forests “______ Roads” Travel was bumpy & uncomfortable

8 River travel Roads functioned mainly to connect ______ Routes didn’t work both ways Robert ______ invented the steam boat “Clermont”

9 ______ made it possible for western farmers & southern planters to increase their trade & profits

10 Canals Transport goods ______ on water Built ______ waterways
Most famous was ______ Canal opened in 1825 Links the ______ with the Great Lakes

11 Railroads Proved more ______ Could ______ 1828- first American Railroad began in ______ Baltimore & Ohio (B & O) line Eventually would put most canals out of business

12 An expanding economy Market revolution
Began ______, borrowing and circulating money and creating wealth People bought items they made for themselves.

13 Working outside the home
1800’s rise in manufacturing increased the demand for people who would work _____, for a specific number of hours each day & for a certain amount of money Used the ______ system

14 The Role of Banks The Rise of the ______ Industry Appeared in the 1780’s & 1790’s To start a new bank, what would happen? Banks made money by doing what?

15 Uncontrolled Lending 1800’s states didn’t restrict banks’ run away lending Often made ______ to people who couldn’t pay them back If a bank doesn’t have enough money, it could lead to ______

16 If a bank couldn’t meet the ______ needs, it would go out of business
Led to ______

17 The Northern Section Section 2
Two regions Populous northeast- ______ Old Northwest- ______

18 Farming in the Old Northwest
Ideal growing ground for corn, wheat, & other grains New innovations John Deere’s ______ could cut through the heavy soil

19 ______ mechanical reaper made harvesting grains less labor intensive & more profitable
Farmers had to use the grains quickly or they would spoil Fed to animals that produced other things

20 The Growth of Cities Many people moved looking for ______
______ life differed greatly from the colonial times Workers spent more time away from the household

21 Families often had no support in times of need
Filled by hospitals & schools Growing number of urban poor people lived in areas with ______ Known as ______

22 Cities couldn’t handle the rapid ______
Many lacked ______ These urban areas acquired wealth & political influence gained from being creators of industry

23 Labor disputes in factories
Early industries aimed to make a profit at ______ Paid little & didn’t provide a healthy working environment Workers go on ______

24 The First Labor Unions National Trades Union 1834 300,000 people joined ______ by 1830’s Soon died out Factory owners obtained ______

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