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Feeding the World Chapter 14 Feeding the World Chapter 14.

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1 Feeding the World Chapter 14 Feeding the World Chapter 14

2 14.1 Human Nutrition Macronutrients – provide energy to body. –Ex. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Micronutrients – provide the body with small amounts of chemicals needed for biochemical reactions.

3 Humans need energy to carry out their life processes. Kilocalorie (Kcal) – unit of measurement for the energy contained with in macronutrients.

4 Humans are omnivores (plant and animal) Human diets should include more vegetables than meats.

5 Nutrition There are 8 Essential Amino Acids that must be obtained by food. Carbohydrates – provide the body with the quickest source of energy. –EX. Bread, grain, or veggies Foods with complex carbohydrates are starches.

6 Malnutrition Caused by the lack of a specific nutrient. A healthy vegetarian diet includes protein from a combination of grains and legumes (soy, bean, peanuts). Foods that come from plants usually lack some essential amino acids.

7 14.2 World Food Supply More food is available per person than at any point in history.

8 The Green Revolution refers to a series of research, development, and initiatives, occurring between the 1940s and the late 1970s, that increased agriculture production around the world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s. [ [

9 1.Development of new strains of wheat and rice, the two main foods of the world. The Green Revolution Characteristic

10 2. Faster growth, resistance to disease, climate diversity. The Green Revolution Characteristic

11 3. Crop yields can increase as much as 4 times the normal yield. The Green Revolution Characteristic

12 4. Fertilizers and Modern Machinery. The Green Revolution Characteristic

13 Poor farmers can’t afford these advances so they don’t make as much money for their product. The Green Revolution Problem

14 Cash Crops A crop grown for the purpose of sale. Developing countries would rather export crops for livestock than provide food for their starving nation. Money is used to support government (weapons and political leaders).

15 Food from the Water Increased harvesting of ocean fish has led to endangerment of fish species. Aquaculture involves the controlled commercial production of fish and mollusks. An alternative to fishing in the open oceans for food is to raise fish in confined pools.



18 Fish Farm


20 14.3 Improving Modern Farming Techniques Modern farming 1 farmer can feed 78 people, 1850 1 farmer could feed 5. Industrialized Agriculture (I.A.) –Highly efficient and productive. I.A. uses large amounts of energy, pesticides, and fertilizers. Agribusinesses – Farms run by large corporations.

21 Large fossil fuels consuming equipment replaced human powered tools.

22 Agribusinesses have several stages: production 2.packaging 3.transport.

23 Modern Farming Techniques Monoculture – growing one or two crops instead of a variety. High amounts of pesticides and fertilizers were necessary due to the single crop. Growing only one crop drains the soil and attracts a high concentration of pests..

24 Problems with Modern Farming Techniques 1.Plants are vulnerable to the same diseases 2.Mineral depletion from the soil 3.Soil ability is reduced which decreases the crop yield. 4.Overusing pesticides has lead to insect resistance

25 Modern Farming Techniques

26 Historic Farming Techniques

27 14.4 Sustainable Agriculture Sustainable Agriculture crop rotation, reduced soil erosion, integrated pest management, and a minimal use of soil additives.

28 Some Methods of Sustainable Agriculture 1.Crop rotation – changing crop on a regular cycle. 1 – 6 Years to prevent the minerals from becoming depleted from the soil. 2.Cover Crops – nonfood plants grown between growing seasons. 3.Return nitrogen naturally and prevent erosion.

29 Some Negative Effects of Non- sustainable techniques: 1.Soil Erosion 2. Deforestation 3. Desertification 4. Hunger 5. War

30 Reducing Erosion 1.Natural process by which valuable topsoil and nutrients are carried away. 2.Drip irrigation delivers small quantities of water at the root, reducing erosion by water. 3.Reduced tilling can increase crop yields. 4.Extensive tilling is beneficial to the soil, but it increases erosion from water and wind.

31 Erosion

32 Pest Management 1.IPM – Integrated Pest Management 2.Reduces pesticides by as much as 90%. 3.Natural Predators – Wasps, ladybugs, and a variety of viruses and bacteria. 4.Insects were becoming immune to insecticides and crops were suffering. 5.Farmers using IPM have higher crop yields.

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