Presentation on theme: "The Reign of Terror: Revolutionary France. A State Controlled Church National Assembly’s Early Reforms: –State controlled church. –Catholic Church lost."— Presentation transcript:
A State Controlled Church National Assembly’s Early Reforms: –State controlled church. –Catholic Church lost land, independence. Land sold to help settle France’s debts.
Louis XVI Tries to Escape The Royal Family attempted to escape to Austria between June 20 th and 21 st of 1791. They were recognized and caught. Seen as repudiation of French Revolution; permanently damaged his standing. Provoked charges of treason and led directly to his execution in 1793.
A Constitutional Monarchy? National Assembly created new constitution in September 1791. Created new lawmaking body called the Legislative Assembly which replaced the National Assembly. King still held onto executive authority.
Factions Emerge Among the Legislative Assembly, three groups: radicals, moderates, conservatives. Outside factions as well: Émigrés, people who fled France and wanted to undo Revolution. Sans-culottes, Parisian people who wanted greater change; typically shop-keepers and workers.
War Breaks Out Austria and Prussia want Louis restored as absolute monarch, Legislative Assembly declares war. France has bad start; Prussians start advancing.
Radicalization Prussian commander says Paris will be leveled if the king is harmed. August 10, 20,000 people storm the palace where the royal family lived; killed the guards and made the royal family prisoners. In September, rumors start in Paris that imprisoned royalists were going to break out and seize the city; thousands of prisoners killed. New constitution adopted; monarchy abolished, all men have the vote. New governing body is called the National Convention.
The Jacobins in Control New leaders members of the radical Jacobin Club. Members include Georges Danton and Jean-Paul Marat. Charismatic leaders and speakers, they espoused a radical ideology. The National Convention, under Jacobin control, reduced Louis to a regular citizen, and then had him executed on January 21, 1793.
Robespierre Robespierre, a Jacobin, gained power in early 1793. Sought to build a “republic of virtue” by eliminating the past of France. Closed all churches, eliminated Sunday, and changed the calendar. Became head of Committee of Public Safety; ruled as dictator, and used the CPS to protect revolution from its enemies. Executed his enemies ruthlessly; including fellow Jacobins who challenged his rule, such as Georges Danton.
Robespierre, ctd. The political cartoon to the right shows Robespierre putting the executioner through the guillotine because nobody else is left.
New NameMeaningTime Period VendemaireVintageSeptember 22 – October 21 BrumaireFogOctober 22 – November 20 FrimaireFrostNovember 21 – December 20 NivoseSnowDecember 21 – January 19 PluvioseRainJanuary 20 – February 18 VentoseWindFebruary 19 – March 20 GerminalBuddingMarch 21 – April 19 FlorealFlowersApril 20 – May 19 PrairialMeadowMay 20 – June 18 MessidorHarvestJune 19 – July 18 ThermidorHeatJuly 19 – August 17 FructidorFruitAugust 18 – September 21 The New Calendar
Thermidorean Reaction In July of 1794, the National Convention turned on Robespierre. Before being executed, either tried to kill himself or was shot in the face by someone else; conflicting accounts. July 28, 1794, he was executed at the guillotine. New government formed yet again.