2Basic Definitions STD STI Sexually Transmitted DiseasesSTD are sometimes referred to as an STISTISexually Transmitted InfectionAn infection caused by any pathogen that spreads from one person to another during sexual contact.STIs pathogens include: bacteria, viruses, and protozoansThe pathogens that cause STIs live in the reproductive organs of males & females.The three most common STIs in the United States are:Trichomoniasis, human papilloma virus, and chlamydia
3Risky Behaviors & the STI Epidemic Short Term Harmful Effects:Pain, discomfort, and embarrassmentLong Term Harmful Effects:Increased risks for certain types of cancerMale or Female Infertility (unable to have children)Many STIs can be treated with medicines, but are incurable. If left untreated, some are fatal.Unlike other infectious diseases, people do NOT develop immunity to STIs after being infected. A person can be cured and then reinfected with the same STI again.There are several risky behaviors that account for the current STI epidemic, including:Ignoring the risksMultiple Partners (more partners = more risk)Not Seeking Treatment (some are too embarrassed, other just don’t know they have one or ignore the symptoms)
4Chlamydia Most common bacterial STD An estimated 3 million people are infected with chlamydia each year.Modes of Transmission:Oral, Anal, Vaginal, BirthA pregnant woman can transmit chlamydia to her baby during the birth. Can cause lung & eye damage to the child.Treatment: Antibiotics (doxycycline or azithromycin)Symptoms:Males: painful urination and discharge from the penis. Left untreated, can lead to Urethritis (inflammation of the lining of the urethra)Females: no symptoms other than a yellowish vaginal discharge. Left untreated can cause a serious infection of the reproductive organs calledPelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID).PID can lead to infertility or entopic pregnancy
6Trichomoniasis Over 7 million people are infected with Trichomoniasis. Caused by a protozoan that infects the urinary tract or vaginaMale Symptoms: painful urination, clear discharge from the penis and some itching. Most males experiences no symptoms at all – but can still transmit the STIUntreated can cause UrethritisFemale Symptoms: itching and burning in the vagina, an unpleasant-smelling yellowish discharge, and painful urination.Untreated can cause Vaginitis (vaginal infection or irritation)
7HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) (Genital Warts) More than 6 million people are infected with HPV each year.HPV is the most common viral STI in the U.S.Symptoms: (in many cases people have NO symptoms and unaware they have HPV)Some forms of HPV cause Genital Warts, which may itch or burn.A Doctor may remove the warts, but they may reappear.Sometimes the body’s immune system will destroy the virus, but in some people HPV remains in the body for life!One of the most serious conditions associated with HPV infection is cervical cancer. Having regular Pap tests can help detect the type of cancer before it becomes life threatening.Modes of Transmission: oral, anal, vaginal, birth
8Gonorrhea Also know as “clap” or “drip” A bacterial infection of the female reproductive organs, and the urinary tracts of males or femalesIt is estimated that 700,000 Americans are infected with Gonorrhea each year.Male Symptoms: thick, painful puslike discharge from the penis & painful urination. Left untreated, can cause urethritis & infertilityFemale Symptoms: puslike discharge from the vagina or urinary tract & sometimes painful urination. Left untreated, can lead to PID & infertilityMany times the symptoms are mild and unnoticed. Therefore people participating in high-risks behaviors should get regular medical checkupsTreatment: AntibioticsModes of Transmission:oral, anal, vaginal, birthIn the US, babies are given medicated eyedrops at birth to prevent infection of the eyes.
9Syphilis (bacterial)Syphilis is becoming less common in the U.S. However, thousands of people are still infected with syphilis each year.Syphilis is a serious bacterial infection can impacts the body in stages:1) Painless stores called a Chancre at the site of exposure. The bacteria may spread from the sore to different parts of the body2) Sores appear in the mouth and flulike symptoms develop. A nonitchy skin rash often appears on the hands & feet.3) Symptoms may disappear for years. However, during that time the bacteria attach internal parts of the body (brain & heart). Left untreated: can cause brain damage, paralysis or death.Early stages can be treated with Antibiotics.It can still be treated past the 2nd stage – but physical damage that has already occurred is permanent.A pregnant woman with syphilis will pass the disease to her developing baby. Left untreated, syphilis can damage the baby’s skin, bones, eyes, teeth, and liver.
10Genital Herpes Symptoms: The virus that causes genital herpes is called Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)Researchers estimate that 1 of 5 people age 12 & older is infected with HSVSymptoms:For some people they are barely noticeable. They may not know they are infectedSome may experience painful blisters that appear on or around the genitalsModes of Transmission: oral, anal, vaginal, kissing (in saliva), birthA person can pass HSV to a sexual partner whether blisters are present or not.A woman with genital herpes can infect her infant during childbirth, causing blindness & possibly death.Treatment: NO CURE. Medications may help shorten the outbreaks (Famvir, Valtrex)
11HepatitisHepatitis B & C, also called HBV and HCV, are sexually transmitted infections that attack the liver.Individuals with HBV & HCV are often unaware of their infection.Symptoms:Fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, and jaundiceBoth infections can lead to live cancer or cirrhosisDiagnosed with a blood testMedications relieve symptoms,but there is NO CURE for HBV or HCVChildren are now routinely vaccinated against HBV, but there is no vaccine for HCV.