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The Risks of Sexual Activity

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1 Chapter 22 Sexually Transmitted infections and AIDS Section 1 The Risks of Sexual Activity

2 The Risks of Sexual Activity
There are 19 million new cases of STIs in the United States each year. Of the 19 million, over 3 million occur in people under 20 years old.

3 Harmful effects of STIs
Short-term- They cause pain, discomfort, and embarrassment. Long-term consequences- increased risk of cancer and increase of infertility in both men and women. Many can be treated with meds, but some are not curable. People can not grow immunity to STIs. A person may be cured and then reinfected with the same disease.

4 Risky behavior and the STI epidemic
There are several risky behaviors that account for the current STI epidemic, including ignoring the risks of sexual activity, having sexual contact with multiple partners, and not getting proper treatment Adolescents in particular tend to ignore the risks, thinking “it cant happen to me”. The reality is that it can, and it does. More sexual partners = higher risk Ignore treatment because of embarassment

5 Avoiding STIs Healthy behaviors such as practicing abstinence, avoiding drugs, and choosing responsible friends are ways to avoid STIs. The only way to be certain to avoid STIs is abstinence. Avoid sharing needles- not only people that share needles, but also their sexual partners. Drugs, like alcohol impair judgement.

6 Chapter 22 Section 1 Review
1-5 15 points- due at the end of class or tomorrow when you enter the room.

7 Section 2 Kinds of STIs The pathogens that cause STIs live in the reproductive organs of males and females. Some also live in blood. Can be spread from person to person through blood and body fluids such as semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. Three of the most common STIs in the United States are trichomoniasis, human papilloma virus, and chlamydia.

8 Trichomoniasis A protozoan that infects the urinary tract or vagina.
In males, symptoms include a clear discharge from the penis, and some itching. Most males experience no symptoms at all. Symptoms in females include itching and burning in the vagina, an unpleasant-smelling, yellowish discharge, and pain when urinating. A doctor may prescribe medicine to cure it.

9 Human Papilloma Virus The most common viral STI in the United States.
In many cases, HPV causes no symptoms, so people may be unaware that they are infected. Some forms of HPV cause genital warts, which may itch or burn. One of the most serious conditions associated with HPV is cervical cancer in women.

10 Chlamydia The most common STI caused by bacteria in the Untied States.
It can be cured with antibiotics. In females, there are often no symptoms other than a yellowish discharge. Males often experience painful, frequent urination and discharge from the penis. A pregnant woman can transmit chlamydia to her baby during birth. If the baby survives, it may suffer damage to the eyes or lungs.

11 Hepatitis Hepatitis B and C are STIs that attack the liver.
They are also spread by blood-to-blood contact. Most common symptoms are fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, and jaundice. May lead to liver cancer.

12 Gonorrhea More than 700,000 Americans are infected with gonorrhea each year. Males usually have a thick, puslike discharge from the penis and painful urination. Females may experience the same symptoms, but more often, symptoms in women are very mild.

13 Genital Herpes Virus that causes genital herpes is herpes simplex virus. 1 out of every 5 people ages 12 and older are infected with a herpes simplex virus. Symptoms may include painful blisters that appear on or around the genitals. May be spread when blisters are present or not. Women may infect their child during birth, causing blindness and possibly death.

14 Syphilis In the first stage, a painless sore called a chancre appears.
In the second stage, sore appear in the mouth and flulike symptoms develop. Rash on the hands and feet. Third stage, the symptoms may disappear for years. But, if left untreated, can cause brain damage, paralysis, and heart disease. In the early stages, it may be treated and cured with antibiotics. If its in a later stage, the bacteria may be killed, but whatever damage it has done is permanent.

15 Treatment Being tested may be embarrassing, but is crucial for long-term health. People who participate in high-risk behaviors should get medical checkups every six months. Individuals who suspect they may be infected should seek prompt medical attention. If you suspect it, refrain from sexual activity and go to the doctor. If you have one, it is important to notify your sexual partners.

16 HIV and AIDS HIV Infection- the most serious incurable STI caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. 13-24 year olds account for 13% of HIV cases reported in the U.S. HIV leads to AIDS, which is often fatal. HIV attacks specific cells of the immune system, disabling the body’s defenses against other pathogens. When the immune system becomes severely disabled, the infected person has AIDS.

17 How HIV Attacks Inside the body, HIV infects helper T cells. Inside the helper T cells, HIV reproduces, killing the cell in process. The new virus then releases from the cell and move on to destroy other helper T cells.

18 Stages of HIV Infection
HIV slowly destroys the immune system. Doctors describe HIV infection as progressive through three stages. Asymptomatic stage- soon after infection person experiences flu like symptoms, which goes away after a few weeks. Symptoms may disappear for months or years. You may still infect others. Symptomatic stage- when a person starts to experience symptoms. These may include weight loss, persistent fever, diarrhea, or fungal infections. AIDS- the body's ability to fight disease has been weakened by HIV, they are susceptible to infections that a healthy person’s immune system could easily fight off.

19 Transmission of HIV Individuals infected with HIV can pass the virus on to someone else through the exchange of blood, semen, vaginal secretions, or breast milk.

20 Risky Behavior Sexual Contact- HIV can be transmitted through any form of sexual contact that involves contact with an infected persons body fluids. This include vaginal, oral and anal sex. Shared needles- sharing needles that are contaminated with infected blood. Contact with blood- if a person has an open cut or sore that comes into contact with the blood or blood parts of an infected person. Mother to baby- during child birth. Mothers with HIV should not breast feed.

21 Safe Behaviors HIV is not transmitted by casual contact . You can not get HIV from going to class or eating lunch with an infected person.

22 A Global Problem With approximately 40 million people infected around the world. HIV and AIDS represent a global health problem.

23 Section 3 Review 1-6 20 points Due today or beginning of class Monday. Use this time to finish packet from yesterday


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