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Environmental and Toxicological Properties of Exolit flame retardants based on Alkyl-Phosphinic Acid Salts Dr. Thomas Marzi Osterfelder Str. 3 D-46047.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental and Toxicological Properties of Exolit flame retardants based on Alkyl-Phosphinic Acid Salts Dr. Thomas Marzi Osterfelder Str. 3 D-46047."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental and Toxicological Properties of Exolit flame retardants based on Alkyl-Phosphinic Acid Salts Dr. Thomas Marzi Osterfelder Str. 3 D Oberhausen

2 Emissions of Exolit flame retardants in the life cycle of polymers Starting Point Concerns because of potential environmental effects of flame retardants Evaluation of 12 flame retardants within the European risk assessment procedure for existing chemicals Halogenated flame retardants have been in the focus of public scrutiny Alternatives to halogenated flame retardants have to prove their environmental benefits Market introduction of phosphinates as a new class of flame retardants for polyamides and polyesters by Clariant This study compares these new flame retardants with currently used brominated systems in polyamide 6.6 and polybutyleneterephthalate

3 Emissions of Exolit flame retardants in the life cycle of polymers Physical and Chemical Properties of Exolit OP 930 / 1230 since Exolit OP is a salt, it behaves partly like an inorganic flame retardant Exolit OP has a low, but not neglectable solubility in water there is an equilibrium between the acid and its anion; this is also the reason for the low pH of a aqueous suspension the pKa shows that the corresponding phosphinic acid is quite strong (stronger than acetic acid, weaker than very strong acids like HCl, H 2 SO 4 ) the negative log Pow indicates that Exolit OP tends to remain in the aqueous phase and not accumulate in hydrophobic phases like lipids PropertyValue solubility in water2,5 g / L pH in aqueous suspension~ 4,0 pKa (phosphinic acid)3,3 log Pow-0,44

4 Emissions of Exolit flame retardants in the life cycle of polymers Ecotoxicological and Environmental Properties of Exolit OP 930 / 1230 the data show that Exolit OP has a very low aquatic toxicity and does not have to be labelled for ecotoxic effects (threshold LD 50 = 100 mg/L) PropertyValue Daphnia toxicityEC 0 = 100 mg/L ; EC 50 > 100 mg/L algae toxicityno inhibition at 180 mg/L fish toxicityLC 0 = 100 mg/L ; LC 50 > 100 mg/L bacteria toxicityEC 20 = 480 mg/L ; EC 50 = 1970 mg/L biodegradabilitynot readily biodegradable hydrolysisstable (tier I of OECD 111) photolysisstable (no uv-vis absorption)

5 Emissions of Exolit flame retardants in the life cycle of polymers Toxicological Properties of Exolit OP 930 / 1230 these data show that Exolit OP is non-toxic, there is no need for labelling it as a hazardous substance (threshold LD 50 = 2000 mg/kg) a 28 day feeding study on rats revealed that the small Exolit OP fraction which is resorbed (< 5 %) is excreted as the well water soluble phosphinic acid via urine and blood with a half life time of 5 hours which indicates no potential for bioaccumulation PropertyValue 28 days toxicity test (rat)NOAEL = 1000 mg/kg, no neurotoxic effects observed acute toxicityLD 50 > 2000 mg/kg (rat) skin irritationnot irritating eye irritationweakly irritating sensitizationnot sensitizing Ames-testnot mutagen cytogenetics in vitronot mutagen

6 Emissions of Exolit flame retardants in the life cycle of polymers No Neurotoxicity of Exolit OP 930 / 1230 Neurotoxicological examinations were carried out while testing for subacute oral toxicity (28 days testing). The result was negative: neurotoxicological measurements including assessment of sensory function, number of rearings, motor activity, forelimb and hindlimb grip strength as well as landing footspread were not influenced by the administration of the test compound in all groups (Würzburg University)

7 Emissions of Exolit flame retardants in the life cycle of polymers Thermal decomposition of neat Exolit OP 930 / 1230 Experiments: –tube furnace and oven with neat Exolit at temperatures of 320 to 800 °C in air –Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) combined with Thermo-Gravimetry (TG) Results: –alkyl groups are removed by oxidation –major products are ethyl phosphonic acid, diethyl phosphinic acid and phosphoric acid and their respective salts (Clariant data)


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